human rights

  • Trzy Deklaracje praw człowieka i obywatela zmienne pryncypia Wielkiej Rewolucji Francuskiej

    Author: Zbigniew Filipiak
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 74-91
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2017.03.05
    PDF: kie/117/kie11705.pdf

    One of the symbols of the Great French Revolution was the Declarations of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen-a document adopted by the National Constituent Assembly on August 26, 1789, collecting fundamental rights and the constitutional principles of a democratic state. It later became a lofty introduction to the 1791 constitution. The French had yet to receive two declarations, attached to the following basic acts-from 1793 and 1795. Their content was different, and even when some of their rights were repeated, they often differed in their approach, which indicated the changing ruling teams, their political programs, and their social background. In addition to indicating the differences between the three declarations, the article shows in particular the inspirations of the first (most important) of them-basically the influence of the Enlightenment thought and the declaration of the laws of the states of North America. The author draws attention to the differences between the American and French approaches to human rights. Despite the fact that after 1795 no further declaration of rights was ever made in France, the achievements of the Great French Revolution, and especially the 1789 document, remain today a point of reference for democrats in France and all over the world.

  • Constitutional Guarantees of the Security of the Human Individual in Poland

    Author: Radosław Grabowski
    E-mail: drgrabowski@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszów
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3362-7363
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 235-248
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.05.17
    PDF: ppk/51/ppk5117.pdf

    The concept of security, which has been popular in recent years, is an integral element of constitutional systems. Securing undisturbed human existence was one of the premises for creating legal acts limiting the arbitrary state – the first constitutions at the end of the 18th century. The tasks imposed on the constitution as a special type of legal act remained unchanged. This tendency was strengthened in the 20th century, hence the modern constitutions are characterized by strong saturation with concepts from the broadly understood field of security. The Polish Constitution of 1997 is no exception in this respect, as it lays down numerous provisions establishing far-reaching restrictions on the state and those in power. In order to guarantee security in some specific areas, the Polish constitution imposes organizational obligations on the rulers, which translates into securing the health, pension or procedural interests of the individual. The issue of respecting constitutional standards related to security is a separate issue, but this is a problem already known at the dawn of constitutionalism.

  • Nature of Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Commitments in the Area of Democracy, the Rule of Law and Human Rights

    Author: Andrzej Bisztyga
    E-mail: A.Bisztyga@wpa.uz.zgora.pl.
    Institution: University of Zielona Góra
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6579-9656
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 271-284
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.05.19
    PDF: ppk/51/ppk5119.pdf

    Democracy, rule of law and human rights are addressed by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Council of Europe and the European Union. Nonetheless, while the Council of Europe and the European Union develop their own legal regimes and ensue legal standards for democracy, the rule of law and human rights, the OSCE generally operates in politics and political standards pertinent to these values. However, by their very nature and definition, OSCE policy commitments are reflected in legal context, being transpired to legally binding European and international treaties. A situation hence unfolds in which a non-binding act contains content that binds beyond it. The nature of the activities of the OSCE institutions complements and corresponds to the ‘soft’ nature of the OSCE’s obligations, which is reflected in the non-authoritarian activities of these institutions: notably monitoring, formulating findings, follow-up, work of experts and reporting. This contributes to consistent relationship between the nature of OSCE commitments and the nature of the activities of its institutions.

  • The Use of Freedom of Artistic Expression in the Context of the Necessity of Respecting Human Rights (the Polish Perspective)

    Author: Kinga Machowicz
    Institution: The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 97-106
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.64.06
    PDF: apsp/64/apsp6406.pdf

    Works of art often refer to privacy or the freedom of conscience and religion. The goal of the study is to contribute to the discussion on resolving conflict situations arising from the way of reception of art and to point out circumstances worth taking into consideration while choosing measures intended to prevent conflicts or at least minimize the effects of conflict situations that have already occurred. That is why it appears indispensable to consider difficulties in defining art-related concepts basing on social science, and to present artistic creation as a form of expression, as well as to analyze the determinants of the freedom of artistic creation as a law-protected interest in the political-legal system in the situation of conflict with other human rights.

  • Kryteria zgłaszania kandydatów w wyborach w systemie ochrony praw człowieka Rady Europy. Rozważania na kanwie wyroku ETPC Tahirov przeciwko Azerbejdżanowi

    Author: Marcin Jastrzębski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 57-73
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.65.04
    PDF: apsp/65/apsp6504.pdf

    Niniejszy artykuł zawiera szeroką analizę problemu kryteriów zgłaszania kandydatów w wyborach w systemie ochrony praw Rady Europy ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wyroku Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka w sprawie Tahirov przeciwko Azerbejdżanowi. Podstawowe badania obejmą przede wszystkim orzecznictwo organów międzynarodowych chroniących prawa jednostki, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Europejskiego Trybunału i Komisji Praw Człowieka Rady Europy, oraz raporty misji obserwujących wybory OBWE.

  • Theoretical and pedeutological research output for inclusive education in the multicultural world

    Author: Bronislava Kasáčová
    Institution: Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 117-126
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2019.02.07
    PDF: em/11/em1107.pdf

    W artykule zaprezentowano główne teoretyczne i socjopolityczne argumenty tworzące tło dla inkluzji edukacyjnej. Uwypuklono w tym zakresie niektóre ważne zagadnienia związane z implementacją idei inkluzji w edukacji na gruncie humanistycznym i demokratycznym. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na tzw. kluczowe kompetencje nauczycieli jako uczestników edukacji włączającej, a także na wymagania wobec personelu zarządzającego instytucjami oświatowymi. Artykuł prezentuje pewne sposoby rozwiązywania problemów w przyszłości, głównie poprzez edukację i szkolenie nauczycieli.

  • Prawa człowieka – religia obywatelska Zachodu. Perspektywa Europejskiej Nowej Prawicy

    Author: Paweł Bielawski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 138-149
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.66.09
    PDF: apsp/66/apsp6609.pdf

    Tematem artykułu są prawa człowieka w perspektywie Europejskiej Nowej Prawicy (ENP). Alain de Benoist (główny ideolog) uważa, że prawa człowieka stały się religią obywatelską Zachodu, która zastąpiła chrześcijaństwo w zlaicyzowanej przestrzeni publicznej, stając się głównym, ideologicznych punktem odniesienia Zachodu. Artykuł omawia chrześcijańską genezę praw człowieka i krytykę praw człowieka z punktu widzenia ENP. A. de Benoist argumentuje, iż prawa człowieka są de facto bronią ideologiczną Zachodu, służącą do symbolicznego zdominowania niezachodnich państw.

  • Patologia władzy a bezpieczeństwo jednostki. Analiza sytuacji w państwach dysfunkcyjnych Afryki Subsaharyjskiej

    Author: Margot Stańczyk-Minkiewicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7994-8336
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 159-177
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201912
    PDF: cip/17/cip1712.pdf

    Czym jest patologia? Co leży u podstaw jej zaistnienia? Jaką formę przybiera ona w rękach przedstawicieli władzy? I wreszcie jaki ma wpływ na bezpieczeństwo jednostki żyjącej w danym państwie? Zamierzeniem autorki niniejszego artykułu jest ukazanie zależności pomiędzy patologią władzy występującą w państwach dysfunkcyjnych1 a destabilizacją bezpieczeństwa ich obywateli. Obszarem poddanym eksploracji w poniższym tekście jest region Afryki Subsaharyjskiej2, z dwóch zasadniczych powodów. Po pierwsze dlatego, że właśnie tam (według corocznych rankingów Fragile States Index3) znajduje się najwięcej państw dysfunkcyjnych w skali globu, a po drugie dlatego, że z raportów opracowywanych przez różne instytucje rządowe, organizacje międzynarodowe i think tanki wynika, że skala tego problemu w Afryce zdecydowanie przewyższa niekorzystną sytuację w innych regionach świata. Odpowiedzi na zadane pytania autorka formułować będzie w oparciu o analizę literatury dotyczącej problematyki tematu, analizę danych publikowanych w wyżej wspomnianych raportach międzynarodowych, tj. Democracy Index, Freedom in the World Report, Corruption Perception Index, Human Development Index, Global Terrorism Index, i badania własne prowadzone od lat w wielu krajach Afryki Subsaharyjskiej.

  • Restrictions on Human Rights and Freedoms During the Time of Epidemic in Poland

    Author: Agnieszka Gajda
    E-mail: agnieszka.gajda@ug.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Gdansk
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1348-174X
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 17-27
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.01
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5701.pdf

    When in 2020 the World Health Organization announced a COVID-19 contagious disease pandemic, it was clear that governments must take actions to limit the consequences of pandemia. Poland was one of the first to introduce far-reaching measures, limiting freedom of movement and closing an increasing number of business and activities. The Polish Constitution contains potential extraordinary measures, including the provision for declaring a “state of natural disaster”, but the Polish government has refrained from enacting it. Instead, it is based on a “state of epidemic”, which is not provided for in the Constitution as the legal ground for limiting human rights. The purpose of this study is to answer the question whether human rights restrictions introduced during the epidemic have a sufficient legal basis from the point of view of the Polish Constitution and the resulting principles.

  • Проблемы становления и развития государственности Республики Каракалпакстан

    Author: Александр Веретильнык
    E-mail: oleksandr.veretilnyk@phd.usz.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5286-4466
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 114-132
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202607
    PDF: npw/26/npw2607.pdf

    Problems of Formation and Development of Statehood of the Republic of Karakalpakstan

    This article is a study of the statehood of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, its integration with Uzbekistan and the problems faced by the Karakalpak national movements. The study can be considered relevant and innovative, since the problems of Karakalpakstan are insufficiently studied in the Polish and European scientific community. The development of relations with the countries of Central Asia, which have large reserves of natural resources, including oil and gas, is one of the priorities of the foreign policy of the European Union. Therefore, the study of regional problems and prediction of possible military-political conflicts in this region of the world, and how to respond to them, is of particular relevance to the political sciences.

  • Constitutional Protection of Fundamental Freedoms in the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada

    Author: Joanna Uliasz
    E-mail: uliaszj@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8967-0064
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 523-531
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.42
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5842.pdf

    This paper provides a brief analysis of Section 2 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which deals with Canadians’ “fundamental freedoms”. Provisions of the Charter guarantee freedom of conscience and religion; freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication; freedom of peaceful assembly; and freedom of association.

  • Right to Work for People with Disabilities

    Author: Michał Skóra
    E-mail: mskora@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Rzeszow University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2701-5945
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 623-631
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.51
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5851.pdf

    The article refers to the right to work of people with disabilities. The author explains the meaning of the terms “disabled person”, “disability” in the context of international regulations and national legislation. He also points to the foundations of the right to work in the context of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, as well as the Act on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities. The author draws attention to international regulations of the UN and ILO in this field. The article outlines the realization of this right in the context of employment of people with disabilities in protected labor market entities and on the so-called open labor market.

  • Challenges to the realization of human rights under the pandemic

    Author: Vasyl Kostytsky
    E-mail: v.kostytsky@yahoo.com
    Institution: National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1692-9810
    Author: Victoria Sydor
    E-mail: victoria.sydor@outlook.com
    Institution: Kyiv Institute of Intellectual Property and Law of the National University „Odessa Law Academy”
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1794-2577
    Author: Iryna Kostytska
    E-mail: iryna-kostytska@ukr.net
    Institution: Institute of Legislation of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2336-1426.
    Author: Anastasia Sukhodolska
    E-mail: a.suhodols@gmail.com
    Institution: National Aviation University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5794-9167
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 90-104
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020406
    PDF: rop/14/rop1406.pdf

    The article deals with the problematic issues of human and civil rights under pandemic on the example of the practice of combating the spread of respiratory disease COVID-19 caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 civil society in Ukraine in 2020. Account has been taken of the fact that the human, his life and health are the highest social value, and that human rights and freedoms determine the content and orientation of State activities. Since every State functioned for the human, in order to protect universally recognized rights and freedoms, it was a feature of a modern democratic State governed by the rule of law. At the same time, in legal science in recent years there has been a debate about the problems of human and civil rights against the background of widespread abuse of rights, individual selfishness, conflict of rights of one person and group of people, human and society. That is to say, in the order of the day came an all-civilizational discussion about the appointment of the State, the idea of humanocentrism and sociocentrism as the fundamental foundation and expediency of the State. The problem is posed by the global challenges faced by present-day civilization: climate protection and freshwater, poverty and corruption, terrorism and military conflicts, massive ethnic displacement and pandemics. In one way or another these problems are present on all continents today, both for the world community and for each State in particular, but there is no well-established mechanism for dealing with them. With regard to combating the spread of coronavirus, it is clear that the problem is a global one in the field of medical law, and that it must be addressed both at the level of the novelization of legislation and at the level of philosophy and sociology of law, ‘cause that’s the kind of system-wide results you can use in complex under the state-creative practice today.

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