• Kantian Normal Idea vs Santayana’s ‘Psychology’ of Defining Characters as Aesthetic Forms

    Author: Krzysztof Wawrzonkowski
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 63-77
    DOI Address:
    PDF: kie/114/kie11404.pdf

    The objective of the presented article consists in the juxtaposition of two depictions of mechanisms of imagination which we use to create averaged images of all sensual experiences. The first of them is Kantian normal idea conducive to the construction of adherent beauty, whereas the second - Santayana’s concept of formation of a generic idea, aesthetic type or an ideal. It is my conviction that both these proposals are convergent, as they refer to the same method of functioning of the imagination, however they differ in certain details, as they are inscribed in nearly entirely opposite aesthetic concepts. However, Santayana’s theory of character creation goes further than Kant’s concept, as it exceeds the averaged image of the normal idea, and, while not being equivalent to Kantian aesthetic idea constituting a certain product of genius, it heads towards the idealisation of representations available to all people. The purpose behind Santayana’s concept proves to be more practical as compared to the solution proposed by Kant. In this depiction, we should recognise a universal mechanism of the imagination in the formation of characters as aesthetic forms, enabling a person to define his/her place and gain knowledge on the human world of attitudes, customs and ordinary behaviours.

  • Edukacyjny potencjał książek obrazkowych na przykładzie twórczości Iwony Chmielewskiej

    Author: Anna Józefowicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku, Polska
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 50-64
    DOI Address:
    PDF: kie/131/kie13103.pdf

    The aim of the text is to present the educational potential of selected books by Iwona Chmielewska - a Polish artist, illustrator, graphic artist. The attention was paid to the content of selected works by the author, which can be treated as tools conducive to work on the development of readers’ imagination and empathy. By analyzing the entire architecture of selected picture books by Chmielewska, they can be seen as an unlimited field that can be used to design „educational opportunities”. The text is an idea of going out to children with an art book, an encouragement to look for others with a similar wealth of metaphors and symbols, so that this type of literature becomes the subject of various forms of school and extracurricular education. The text is structured as follows: explain the meaning of the term picture book; emphasizing the importance of picturebooks in contemporary culture; an attempt to define the characteristic style of Iwona Chmielewska’s books; consider the importance of empathy and imagination for the cultural sensitization of the reader; presenting proposals for educational activities inspired by the books by Iwona Chmielewska. The content analysis method used in the methodology of qualitative research was used.

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