India

  • Między konfliktem a współistnieniem. Stosunki hindusko-muzułmańskie na wybranych obszarach wiejskich w północno-zachodnich Indiach

    Author: Natalia Zajączkowska
    E-mail: n.zajaczkowska@interia.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 50-68
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018103
    PDF: so/13/so1303.pdf

    Between Conflict and Coexistence: A Case Study of Hindu-Muslim Relations in Rural North-Western India

    The Partition of India upset the status quo causing riots, casualties and a colossal wave of migration that sent thousands of Muslims to their new homeland, Pakistan. Despite the mass violence and displacement, around 35 million Muslims eventually stayed in India. The tensed Hindu–Muslim relations in the aftermath of the Partition intensified a long-standing rivalry between the two groups and led to a feeling of insecurity among Muslims. Strained relations among Hindus and Muslims, which stay at the forefront of social concerns in contemporary India, remain a major cause of worry and call for an in-depth analysis. The article focuses on how the Hindu-Muslim relations developed throughout the modern history, especially during the times of the Indian Independence Movement. The goal of my research is to elucidate historical, social and political contexts of Hindu– Muslim relations in India and to shed a new light on this multifaceted issue. After presenting a historical perspective on Hindu-Muslim relations, the article provides a case study on both communities’ attitudes towards each other. Based on two months of fieldwork conducted in Northern villages of India in January and February 2018, I investigate the multiple stereotypes about Muslims prevailing among Hindu rural community. I address a question whether the character of this uneasy relation is closer to coexistence or a hidden conflict.

  • Co wykuto w indyjskiej skale – XVIII i XIX-wieczne ryciny ze zbiorów londyńskich

    Author: Barbara Kokurewicz
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 86-104
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018205
    PDF: so/14/so1405.pdf

    What was created in the Indian rock – 18th and 19th century drawings from the London’s collections. European artists and their visions

    The article presents a collection of drawings shows Indian rock architecture, from three of the most important London collections – Cornell University Library, British Library and Victoria & Albert Museum. Thousands paintings made in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in India were created by artists traveling to the oriental state for documentation the great moments in history of the world, but only a small group of artists decided to show rocky architecture, which is stirring and talking. These paintings are a remarkable testimony of those times, showing the quality of preservation of monuments, that we can compare their appearance with the present state, and show us the emotions of the artists, who were painting extraordinary subject – the composition, the selection of the particular temple, gives us information about society of those times. The article presents the most important artists documenting rock architecture in India, analyze the formal side of picture and in the context of another work of art form those times.

  • Krytyczna analiza postzimnowojennych relacji chińsko-indyjskich w perspektywie realizmu strukturalnego

    Author: Marcin Adamczyk
    E-mail: marcin.amadeusz.adamczyk@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3432-0358
    Author: Patrycja Rutkowska
    E-mail: patient@op.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9660-9528
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-28
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2019201
    PDF: so/16/so1601.pdf

    Critical analysis of post-Cold War China-India relations in the perspective of structural realism

    Our article is an attempt to answer the question of whether it is possible for two neighbouring countries, which aspire at the same time to the role of superpowers, to cooperate and have peaceful relations with each other. In order to answer this question, we intend to prove the thesis that the state of China-India relations, despite the appearance of good neighbourly relations, is defined by growing security problems. In order to do this, we intend to conduct a system-level analysis based on the current of structural realism in international relations using historical and comparative methods. The aim of this article is to critically analyze China-Indian relations in the post-Cold War period. At the same time, we intend to show that the thriving diplomatic relations between New Delhi and Pakistan are in fact a façade concealing poorly functioning economic relations and, above all, a number of security problems. The first chapter is a brief description of the theoretical framework of the article in the form of a realistic current in international relations and security research and an explanation of the applied concepts of power balance, security dilemma and bandwagoning. The second and third chapters are a brief description and analysis of political and economic relations after the Cold War. In chapter four, we identify the leading security issues in India-China relations. In summary, we try to answer the research question and confirm the thesis.

  • Language and Politics in India and China: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study

    Author: Daniel Komarzyca
    E-mail: daniel.komarzyca@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1562-994X
    Author: Janina Fras
    E-mail: janina.fras@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0672-482X
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 9-36
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020402
    PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020402.pdf

    This paper provides insights into the relationship between language and politically relevant aspects of culture in India and China which are as follows: attitude toward revolution and tradition, the domination of politics over religion or vice versa, and a concern for the liberty of the individual. The paper introduces a novel approach to the comparative study of civilizations by advancing the political-linguistic explanation. In so doing, it combines Hajime Nakamura’s hypothesis of the strict connection between language and culture (understood as a way of thinking) with Samuel P. Huntington’s emphasis on the impact of cultural differences on the political dimension of society – so that our explanatory model can be expressed as follows: language→culture→politics. As far as language is concerned, the focus is on the basic structure of Sanskrit and Chinese; besides, special attention is given to Indian and Chinese philosophies of language. Culturally, the most relevant schools of Hindu philosophy may be called “ultraconservative” since they tend to ground unchanging meaning firmly in metaphysics and rely on the supreme authority of ancient religious texts. In contrast, the Chinese typically considered language a social mechanism for shaping our behavior (so the relation of language and society is the most crucial); they also expressed clearly divergent views on naming. In short, at least four distinctive perspectives are essential: (1) conservative Confucianism, (2) anti-traditional and highly authoritarian Legalism, (3) egalitarian and linguistically skeptical Laozian Daoism, (4) nonconformist and proto-libertarian Zhuangzian Daoism.

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