international law

  • International Law and the Nagorno–Karabakh War: Opinion on Political Aspects

    Author: Sadir Surkhay Mammadov
    Institution: Baku Slavic University (Azerbaijan)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 385-390
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016028.pdf

    The opinion report considers relations between international norms, Azerbaijan’s national legal system and political understandings of the Nagorno–Karabakh conflict. It discusses classification of Armenian actions in a context of the international law’s development and an impact of international regulations on national criminal codes. Therefore, it presents the Azerbaijani perspective on major political aspects of the Nagorno–Karabakh War and international response to Armenian occupation of Azerbaijan’s territories. Moreover, it evaluates Armenian actions in the region with reference to the definition of genocide and international policy of its prevention. In general, the opinion report shows how the Azerbaijani society understands the conflict and how it may be classified on the basis of the Soviet law (as acts of terror has started in the late 1980s), the international law and the contemporary Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan. As a result, it is not only a report that introduces the Azerbaijan’s perspective on the issue, but it can also be recognised as an interesting source to understand how the Azerbaijani people label actions of their neighbouring nation. 

  • Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons as the Source of Endangerment for the Contemporary World and the Reason for the International Law Regulations Being a Subject of Abuse

    Author: Wojciech Stankiewicz
    Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2006
    Source: Show
    Pages: 16-32
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006002.pdf

    Among the kinds of CB Weapons, the chemical one might be considered as the one with the longest history of widespread warfare applicability, whereas the biological one as the developed problem of the recent two centuries but also having its roots in ancient eras. The consequences of the usage of CBs are acknowledged by the international conventions dealing with the CB phenomenon. Although the provisions provide solutions and declarations of the minimised usage of CB weapons as the method of warfare and the limited laboratory testing in accordance to the sake of all mankind, the problem still exists. Nowadays, it is especially discussed after the events of 11.09.2001, which brought about the airborne attack on the the two towers of the World Trade Centre in New York and the proceeding events of the Bacillus anthracis4 intoxication spread across the United States of America. 

  • Jednostka wobec rządów prawa

    Author: Witold Sobczak
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 51-75
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ksm/22/ksm201704.pdf

    This text focuses on the issue of the functioning of the individual in the state. The main issues analysed in the text are: autonomy and privacy units, the influence of the individual on political decisions, legitimization of political power, the universal protection of human rights. An attempt to answer the question about the scope of the possibility of entering the state into the sphere of human rights, rights of individual.


    Author: Karol Kościelniak
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 138-149
    DOI Address: -
    PDF: rop/2013/rop201308.pdf

    In recent years, the South China Sea area has become the arena of competition between the countries of Southeast Asia that set up claims to maritime areas and the islands, and, all the more, want to control and exploit what can be found under the seabed, namely the deposits of oil and gas. The situation in the area cannot even be resolved by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Montego Bay, 1982). Apart from the resources found in the sea and under the seabed, this body of water is an important shipping route, which makes it a strategically significant area for each of the countries located there, or those whose interests involve the South China Sea.
    In this work, I describe the current situation in the waters of South China Sea: whether the countries bordering it strive for conflict or just secure their interests. It turns out each of the states will set up demands to the islands on this sea and especially to everything that lives in the sea and is to be found under the seabed. Minor, and also more significant incidents will happen, but it does not seem likely that any serious open conflict between the states of the region will break out in the close future. None of the countries pursues it and they do everything they can to maintain the status quo.

  • The Right of Indigenous Peoples to Self-Determination: International Law Perspective

    Author: Agnieszka Szpak
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 178-204
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/59/apsp5912.pdf

    The author offers an international law perspective on a specific issue of self-determination of indigenous peoples. The article begins with the definition of indigenous peoples, then proceeds to self-determination in general. The last section examines the forms of indigenous selfdetermination and its meaning for indigenous peoples. Indigenous peoples have a right to self-determination which allows them for control over their destiny, their livelihoods, their culture and customs. It may be realized, most of all, in the form of autonomy or self-governance. As such, self-determination allows indigenous peoples to participate in decision making in matters that affect their rights.

  • The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and the Problem of Political Will

    Author: Jed Lea-Henry
    Institution: Vignan University (India)
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 553-570
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/47-3/ppsy2018308.pdf

    The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) was created in the hope of overcoming the barrier that state sovereignty, as a principle, had become to actions of humanitarian intervention. It was imagined that as mass atrocity crimes were coming to the attention of the international community, that, on the whole, they were willing, able and eager to intervene in order to stop the violence in question. Holding them back was sovereignty as both a legal and normative barrier. This was always a bad explanation for the pervasive lack of humanitarian intervention; accordingly R2P, as a bad solution, has failed almost entirely. The problem is, and always has been, that when faced with mass atrocity crimes, the international community is plagued by a near-permanent lack of political will to action.

  • Zasada nieingerencji w sprawy wewnętrzne innego kraju oraz jej miejsce w polityce zagranicznej Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej

    Author: Marcin Adamczyk
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Author: Magdalena Debita
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-32
    DOI Address:
    PDF: so/14/so1401.pdf

    The principle of non-interference in another country internal affairs and its role in People’s Republic of China foreign policy

    This essay is an attempt to elaborate the role of state sovereignty and the resulting principle of non-interference in the law and practice of international relations. Authors undertook an attempt to map out the course of the evolutionary process of changing the perception of these rules and the relationship between the concept of state sovereignty and the principle of non-interference in the light of the most important acts of international law. Authors found a need to answer the question about whether and when interference in another country policy is legally and actually permissible. Moreover the goal of the article is to describe and to explain the role of non-interference principle in China’s foreign policy after year 1949. In order to achieve the stated assumption, authors analyze its historical determinant (dated back to the mid of nineteenth century) and also following, after the end of World War II, process of seeking support in international law, in face of two imperialism, which were adversarial to each other. Authors also consider the reasons for China’s economic success in Africa in the context of the principle of non-interference, to finally move into the issue regarding the evolution of the sovereignty perception and non-interference policy among Chinese decision-makers.

  • The Emotional Backdrop of Legal Discourses in South China Sea Disputes

    Published online: 10 June 2021
    Final submission: 1 August 2020
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Eric Pomès
    Institution: Vendée Catholic University (ICES) (France)
    Author: Jean-Marc Coicaud
    Institution: Rutgers University, State University of New Jersey (USA)
    Source: Show
    Page no: 18
    Pages: 25-42
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202104.pdf

    The China Sea connects as many coastal states as it divides due to the economic and strategic challenges it represents. It also embodies an area of confrontations between the Great American and Chinese strategies. Identifying with precision the differences that arise requires an interest in the symbolic dimensions that surround them. This angle of analysis provides an opportunity to observe the functioning of international law and inevitably leads to a discussion of the emerging international order. The literature on the situation in the China Sea abounds. The paper’s singularity is to approach it under the prism of international law as revealing the psychology of an actor. To carry out this research, the authors use a pragmatic and critical approach to international law. The thesis defended shows that, contrary to a positivist and judicial approach to international law, elements exogenous to the law, the history, and the psychology of an actor, influence the interpretation of existing norms.

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