international security

  • MILITARY FORCE IN CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL REALITY

    Author: Jarosław J. Piątek
    E-mail: jarekpiatek@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 44-59
    DOI Address: -
    PDF: rop/2015/rop201504.pdf

    For the purposes of this article it has been assumed that the army should not become an autonomous constituent of the state’s structure, since this would pose a threat of taking over a dominant position by this specific formation. The aim of the article is to analyze the modification of the reasons for the outbreak of war, and the means of conducting it. The ongoing changes in the security environment, both in national and worldwide scale, as well as the proceeding national interests of our country imply increasingly advanced tasks for the army and considerably extend their range. The process of transformation in the Polish army is being continued. Further changes are targeted at increasing operational capability in order to enable efficient accomplishment of domestic tasks and performing missions outside its borders. In the contemporary international reality there is a prevailing conviction, that the threat of the outbreak of a global-scale war is rather unlikely. However, other jeopardies and risks have recently come to the fore.

  • THE DILEMMA OF PRESENT DAY: GUERRILLA, TERRORIST AND ASYMMETRIC WARFARE

    Author: Jarosław J. Piątek
    E-mail: jarekpiatek@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 46-62
    DOI Address: -
    PDF: rop/2014/rop201404.pdf

    In order to describe the environment surrounding us, so complex in terms of relations resulting from using violence, we easily employ terms such as ‘partisan’ or ‘militant’, just in order to define the very same ones as terrorists a while later. Probably the benchmark of contemporary description, especially of political action is the lack of clear-cut attitudes. Terrorism is nothing new, and this statement in itself is not very revealing. However, for many contemporary researchers of this issue, there is never too much information. Terrorism has always accompanied the history of oppressive regimes as well as resistance movements and uprisings. All the same, within the anti- colonial insurrectionary movements of the mid-20th century which led to the fall of European colonial empires over a short period of time, terrorism achieved new quality. It should also be emphasized that it achieved considerable political successes compared to the social-revolutionary terrorism of the late 19th century. The attribute ‘terrorist’ serves as an excluding one in different relations. By employing such term, one that their cause is an unconventional one – leastways as long as specific ways of using violence are applied. On the other hand, groups classified as terrorist ones often describe themselves as partisans who are fighting for the liberation of certain social or ethnic groups and who have to employ “unconventional” methods of using force because of the military superiority of the oppressive regime. By describing certain actions as ‘terrorist’ one usually intends on bereaving it of every sort of political legitimation. Is there any aspect that terrorism and guerrilla actions have in common? In certain socio-revolutionary or ethno-separatist strategies of violence, the concept of terrorism consists in the idea of a ‘starter’ which is to create the conditions to commence the guerrilla war. There could also be groups acting as partisans on one front line, and as terrorists on the other. The example is Al-Qaeda: in Central Asia its network operated only temporarily, as a kind of guerrilla, while in the global scale it employed terrorist strategy.

  • RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE UNITED NATIONS - CONSIDERATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AGAINST THE CASE OF AHMED ALI YUSUF AND AL BARAKAAT INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION

    Author: Ewelina Cała-Wacinkiewicz
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-28
    DOI Address: -
    PDF: rop/2013/rop201301.pdf

    The actions indicated above and taken by the United Nations and the European Union (in spite of their different international law status) argue that objectives attributed to international organisations are not only postulates, but a basis for actions taken specifically, both in the legal and actual dimension. Therefore, the main research objective adopted for this study was to bring them closer, with particular emphasis on the UN and the EU joint actions for international security. Due to the complexity and multifaceted nature of the discussed subject matter of these considerations, they will be confined to the T-306/01 Ahmed Ali Yusuf and Al Barakaat International Foundation case recognized by the EU Court of First Instance. In there, as in a lens, interrelationships between the international organisations in questions are concentrated; and not only in terms of international cooperation, but, more importantly, in terms of the principle of the primacy of the United Nations law over other legal regimes.

  • The Armenia – Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict and New Threats to the International Security Architecture in the Modern Period: Challenges and Responses

    Author: Sadir Mammadov
    Institution: Baku Slavic University
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 57-72
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20181704
    PDF: npw/17/npw1704.pdf

    The Armenia – Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict and New Threats to the International Security Architecture in the Modern Period: Challenges and Responses

    In the paper, we present new threats and dangers in the present international arena and their impact on the system of international security. We analyze the causes and development of these issues the international law system, paying particular attention to the case of Armenian-Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh conflicts. We also discuss possible solutions to these problems proposed by experts. Some of the most interesting issues we address in the paper include the increasing activity of ISIL, cybercrimes, Ukraine crisis, immigration flow to Europe in recent years. All these problems are viewed from the multicultural perspective. We also analyze the genesis of ethnic conflicts, and put forward some recommendations for resolving them. We discuss the factors that led to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflicts, possible solutions to this problem, and a dangerous double standard policy. Terrorist threats, as well as “frozen” conflicts, resulted in the need for deepening interstate cooperation in the security sector.

  • Terroryzm jako ewoluujące zagrożenie bezpieczeństwa współczesnego świata. Pomiar i ocena zjawiska

    Author: Marek Rewizorski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 316-336
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201719
    PDF: cip/15/cip1519.pdf

    Wobec coraz częstszych przejawów terroryzmu wewnętrznego, krajowego (zamykającego się w granicach jednego państwa) i zewnętrznego, transnarodowego (obejmującego swym zasięgiem działania więcej niż jednego państwa, transgranicznego), powstają pytania, który rodzaj terroryzmu – wewnętrzny czy zewnętrzny staje się większym zagrożeniem bezpieczeństwa? W jaki sposób terroryści adaptują się do wewnątrzkrajowych (defensywnych) środków bezpieczeństwa oraz zewnętrznych (ofensywnych) środków wykorzystywanych przez państwa w wojnie z terroryzmem? Jak przemiany terroryzmu w wymiarze motywacyjnym, a więc wartości i zasady służące terrorystom jako uzasadnienie stosowania przemocy, zwłaszcza odejście od świeckich ideologii politycznych, lewicowych, w kierunku uzasadnienia religijnego, wpływają na ewolucję terroryzmu jako zagrożenia dla jednostek i ich grup? Kto lub co jest celem ataków współczesnych grup terrorystycznych? Celem tego artykułu jest udzielenie odpowiedzi na powyższe pytania w oparciu o bogatą literaturę oraz dane na temat terroryzmu, pochodzące z dwóch baz danych, tj. The International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events (ITERATE), a także Global Terrorism Database (GTD). Rozważania teoretyczne zostaną oparte na na modelu ekonomicznej racjonalności działania terrorystów przedstawionym przez Williama M. Landesa w 1978 roku.

  • Alliances, Conflict Escalation and the Outbreak of Interstate War, 1816 – 2000

    Author: Michał Drgas
    Institution: Pomeranian University in Słupsk
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-26
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.52.01
    PDF: apsp/52/apsp5201.pdf

    In international relations theory alliances are often regarded as factors influencing the incidence of interstate war. This study statistically examines this claim on a population of cases taken from the Correlates of War project data sets, consisting of 3216 instances of militarized interstate disputes (MIDs) that occurred in the period 1816 – 2000, 307 of which were wars. In the test, this initial data set has been divided into three sub-sets comprising: (1) originator dyads, (2) originators-as-initiators-and-joiners-astargets dyads, and (3) joiners-as-initiators-andoriginators- as-targets dyads; and ten variables were used to determine the impact of alliances on whether MIDs will become wars. These variables included unit-, dyad-, and system-level indicators of the presence of alliances, their capabilities and tightness. Combined, this enabled the analysis to test hypotheses related to the capability-aggregation and war-diffusion functions of alliances as well as arguments on the relationship between polarity and war.

  • Fenomen Boko Haram. Afrykański kalifat zagrożeniem dla bezpieczeństwa międzynarodowego

    Author: Marta S. Stempień
    Institution: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 123–133
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.50.07
    PDF: apsp/50/apsp5007.pdf

    Społeczność międzynarodowa jest nieustannie zmuszana do konfrontacji z zagrożeniem ze strony islamskiego terroryzmu w różnych częściach świata, w tym w wielu częściach Afryki, jak np. w Nigerii, gdzie dżihadystowskie powstanie Boko Haram przekształciło się w konflikt regionalny. W przeszłości grupa była powszechnie określana jako sekta religijna, obecnie uznaje się ją za organizację terrorystyczną. Pomimo różnic w metodach działania jest porównywana do Al-Kaidy, Państwa Islamskiego i Talibów. Od marca 2015 roku należy do sieci prowincji Państwa Islamskiego, w związku ze złożeniem przysięgi wierności kalifowi Abu Bakrowi Al-Baghdadiemu. Niniejsza publikacja ma na celu przeanalizowanie fenomenu Boko Haram oraz połączenia jej ze zjawiskiem tworzenia samozwańczych kalifatów. Artykuł uwzględnia nigeryjską tożsamość religijną, etniczną i regionalną, aby wskazać oddziaływanie Boko Haram na bezpieczeństwo międzynarodowe.

  • Some Comments on Vietnam’s Security in the 21st Century

    Author: Karol Kościelniak
    E-mail: kkos@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8240-5858
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 71-78
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201904
    PDF: rop/2019/rop201904.pdf

    The main objective set by many countries is ensuring security. The means to accomplish this goal are the armed forces, obliged to guarantee safe functioning of the state and its citizens. There are states, for which maintaining a powerful, modern army has enormous significance for their superpower status, for their preparedness to a potential conflict or as a deterrent for the neighbouring states. Therefore, in the following text I will deal with the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, because of its history, and especially due to the region where it is situated - one of the hottest places on Earth, full of misunderstandings, disputes and conflicts causing that the states situated there, including Vietnam, are modernising their armies.

  • Decoding state fragility : Recent trends and developments (2015–2019)

    Author: Daria Vilkova
    E-mail: vydelkova@gmail.com
    Institution: Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5384-6884
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 41-52
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020303
    PDF: rop/13/rop1303.pdf

    The article highlights the main developments in the study of state fragility in the period between 2015 and 2019. The goal is to cover the main trends in the study of the subject as well as the most prominent projects of recent years. The article presents the main findings and recommendations of different international agencies, including the reports by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, LSE-Oxford Commission on State Fragility, Growth and Development, United States Institute for Peace Fragility Study Group and the Task Force on Extremism in Fragile States. The article covers the main approaches to state fragility, recent academic novelties and trends in the field. Among these is popularizing the notion of resilience in a set of OECD States of Fragility reports. The fragility trap and regarding state fragility as a syndrome with a set of symptoms is analyzed on the basis of the Commission on State Fragility report. The US agencies’ attitude is also taken into account. The preventive approach towards extremism and fragile states as well as the steps to be taken by different agencies together with international partners are covered in this article. Fragility Study Group, the Task Force on Extremism in Fragile States, and Global Fragility Act are analyzed as interconnected and a part of the same doctrine and political strategy towards the four-S framework implementation. The article acknowledges the continuity in the work of different research groups that culminated in the Global Fragility Act. The need to reconsider previous approaches to the root causes of state fragility is emphasized. The importance of coordinated prevention in fragile states and conflict-affected areas is seen as critical for international security. The article also traces recent adjustments in the attitude toward the main gaps in state functions and the views on the root causes of state fragility and ways to combat the issue and the emerging security, political and economic threats.

  • Latvia as the Area of Correlated Russian “Hard Power” and “Soft Power” Operations

    Published online: 21 June 2021
    Final submission: 14 June 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Gabriel Nowacki
    E-mail: gabriel.nowacki@wat.edu.pl
    Institution: Military University of Technology (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5357-8824
    Source: Show
    Page no: 20
    Pages: 113-132
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202121
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202121.pdf

    This work presents the methodology of the Russian impact on Latvia after 1991. It defines and specifies the scope of methods concerning both the hard and soft power in international relations in the 21st century, particularly the ones used to implement the Russian Federation’s foreign policy. The implemented strategies and impact models are described. The work is also focused on certain indicators used in global rankings by experts worldwide. In the 21st century, it is no longer enough to employ the hard power methods as it is advisable to use the soft power ones, which may bring about much better results than the hard ones.

Wiadomość do:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart