Iraq

  • The American Military Strategy to Combat the ‘Islamic State’ in Iraq and Syria: Assumptions, Tactics and Effectiveness

    Author: Ewelina Waśko-Owsiejczuk
    Institution: University of Białystok (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 317-336
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016024
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016024.pdf

    The American strategy to combat the ‘Islamic State’ rests on four pillars. The first is to conduct systematic air campaigns against the terrorists. The second involves increasing support for forces fighting the jihadists on the ground. The third is based on the strengthening of international cooperation in counter–terrorism operations. The fourth involves the provision of humanitarian aid to civilians displaced from the territories occupied by the jihadists. This article analyzes the assumptions, tactics, the most important decisions and actions of the American administration to combat the ‘Islamic State’. It is an attempt to provide answers to the questions: why has there been a growth of extremism in the Middle East? Why is the ‘Islamic State’ a new form of terrorist threat? How does it differ from other terrorist organizations? How was the ‘Islamic State’ created? What actions have been taken by the international coalition led by the United States in the fight against the jihadists in the Middle East? Is the strategy taken up by the United States effective? Does the defeat of the ‘Islamic State’ require the involvement of US ground forces in Iraq and Syria?

  • Wpływ polityki USA na powstanie „państwa” islamskiego. O spuściźnie prezydentury George’a W. Busha

    Author: Ewelina Waśko-Owsiejczuk
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7–31
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2017.53.01
    PDF: apsp/53/apsp5301.pdf

    W 2003 r. Amerykanie wkroczyli do Iraku pod szyldem wojny z terroryzmem. Obok posiadania broni masowego rażenia Saddamowi Husajnowi zarzucano współpracę z Al-Kaidą . Plan administracji George’a W. Busha wydawał się prosty. Obalić reż im Husajna, zabezpieczyć irackie złoża ropy naft owej i rozpocząć proces przemian demokratycznych. Zasadzone w Iraku ziarno demokracji miało zostać rozsiane na całym Bliskim Wschodzie. Amerykanie popełnili w Iraku wiele błędów, które miały liczne reperkusje, nie tylko dla USA, ale całego systemu bezpieczeństwa międzynarodowego. Misja stabilizacyjna w Iraku nie tylko nie zmniejszyła terroryzmu, ale stworzyła dogodny grunt dla rozwoju ekstremizmu, doprowadzając do destabilizacji całego regionu. Dzisiaj bardziej problematyczną kwestią od poziomu demokracji w Iraku jest coraz większa aktywność terrorystyczna „państwa” islamskiego, już nie tylko na Bliskim Wschodzie, ale również w Europie.

  • The Obama Doctrine and the Use of American Military Power in the Middle East

    Author: David T. Jervis
    Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6398-4738
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 22-40
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.02
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6002.pdf

    This article examines the use of American military power in the Middle East during the presidency of Barack Obama. While some have characterized those responses as confusing, inconsistent, and/or inadequate in number, this study argues that there is a way to understand and explain Obama’s decisions, the “Obama Doctrine”. The article develops and applies the Doctrine to America’s use of force, or not, in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Libya, and elsewhere.

  • Irak 2018 – wybór strategiczny. Uwarunkowania i implikacje wyborów parlamentarnych w Iraku w 2018 roku

    Author: Paulina Jagoda Warsza
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 131-157
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018107
    PDF: so/13/so1307.pdf

    Iraq 2018 – a strategic choice. The background, implications and importance of Iraq’s parliamentary elections of 2018

    The parliamentary elections of May 2018 may become a landmark for Iraq on both internal and geopolitical levels. This paper analyses internal and international preconditions of Iraqi parliamentary elections in the context of possible implications of the election results for the international position of Iraq and internal stability of the state. The international context is shaped by security situation in the region, the increased engagement of Saudi Arabia, American efforts to isolate Teheran and the internal situation in Iran as well as the growing rivalry between centers of Shia Islam in Najaf and Qom and the different models of socio- political organization they propose. In the internal dimension, the election results – while surprising for the establishment and the majority of observers – are the outcome of many variables: the systemic crisis related to the Kurdish independence referendum, the disputable position and the future role of the Popular Mobilization Units in the political system and security apparatus. The increasing social pressure may require the reform of the Iraqi political system. The results of 2018 elections – as well as the dynamics and nature of popular protests unfolding since 2015 – show that the majority of Iraqis that are engaged in this new social movement demonstrate an anti-interventionist attitude and support the integrity of the state. The widespread protests indicate that the status quo based on the sectarian quota sharing system adopted in 2005 is being questioned, as well as the common notion that religion and ethnicity are the main political motivations in the Middle East. This article aims to demonstrate that due to the co-occurrence of specific processes and phenomena in the international environment and in Iraq itself (in area of civic-awareness that has resulted in creation of a social movement), a process of political emancipation has begun that may lead to reestablishment of Iraq as a sovereign entity in international politics.

  • Federalne państwo irackie rozwiązaniem problemów etnicznych i wyznaniowych na przykładzie Kurdystanu

    Author: Amin Zangana
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7487-4737
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 27-42
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2021102
    PDF: so/19/so1902.pdf

    The Federal State of Iraq as a Solution to the Ethnic and Denominational Problems on the Example of Kurdistan

    Federalism is one of many political solutions to the situation in the Iraqi state. The reason is that it was a political solution most frequently used in the world. It was applied mainly in multicultural countries. The complex political and administrative situation compels to look for a political compromise that will find justification and legal basis in the constitution of a given country. The federal system appears to be the compromise. Meanwhile, the Russian model can be used as an example for Iraqi Kurdistan, particularly in the case of Dagestan. In the early twentieth century, the newly established Iraqi state incorporated a part of the Kurdish region, while at the same time there were plans to create the Kurdish state. The difficulties would not let up. Problems related to nationality were becoming more acute. The second phase of the Iraqi problem arose after the collapse of Saddam Hussein’s regime. A diversified country was beginning to face a problem not only on national, but also religious grounds. The Russian model, predominantly exemplified by Dagestan, could prove successful in Iraq. Both ethnic and religious similarities speak for it.

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