Japan

  • Ex oriente lux: Roman Dmowski w Japonii

    Author: Michihro Yasui
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 241-254
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014113
    PDF: npw/06/npw2014113.pdf

    Roman Dmowski’s journey to Japan after the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War is a well-known episode in the modern history of Poland. As far as we know, Dmowski, after his arrival in Japan, wrote two memorandum in English (one is about political and social relations in Russia and the another is about the political situation in Poland) for the Japanese General Staff, and in the name of the Japanese government wrote an appeal to Polish soldiers in the Russian army to leave it and surrender. In a street in Tokyo Dmowski by chance met Józef Piłsudski, a member of the Polish Socialist Party and Dmowski’s political opponent, who was also visiting Japan, seeking for military aid from the Japanese government. Three days later they had their famous „nineteen hours’ talk” at the hotel. After it Dmowski sent a memorandum to Baron Jutarō Komura, Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, in which he expounded how harmful it would be for the war strategy of Japan if an insurrection breaks out in Poland. Besides these activities, we should pay due attention to the effect of Dmowski’s stay in Japan on his view of nation or society. Dmowski’s nine weeks stay in Japan (from 15 May to 22 July, 1904) was only in a part of the first stage of the war which broke out in February 1904 and ended in June 1905. Despite this fact, it should be emphasized that Dmowski’s knowledge about Japanese people was so much richer than we suppose. This paper presents some interesting episodes with a special Focus on the conversation with General Gentarō Kodama and his experience of his visits to Japanese prisoner-of-war camps in Matsuyama, where he interviewed Polish soldiers. Dmowski was strongly impressed by the behavior and way of thinking of Japanese people and stated later that it influenced his views immensely, among others his view on society and the nation. The effect of his experience in Japan mostly ap pears in his work „Essentials of Polish Politics” which was published in „The All- Polish Review” in May 1905 and was added as supplementary chapters to the third edition of „Thoughts of a Modern Pole” (1907). In this important article the father of modern Polish nationalism could clarify his views on „national instinct” and „national ethics”.

  • Polsko-japońska współpraca polityczna oraz gospodarcza w latach 2003–2017

    Author: Piotr Andrzej Głogowski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 91-107
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm201805
    PDF: ksm/23/ksm201805.pdf

    The East Asian region has never been among the priority directions of Polish foreign policy – only a few percent of Polish diplomatic engagement was focused on the entire Asian continent. In turn, this small percentage of Polish commitment was divided among all countries in the region. Nonetheless, it is worth noting, that in the examined period (2003–2017), a several very important bilateral agreements were concluded – including agreements that Japan decided to make only with a narrow group of countries.
    In the following paper I decided to analyze the last 14 years of bilateral relations between Poland and Japan. The article uses both language sources (Polish and Japanese), as well as a statistical data.
    At the end of the paper will be shown, that even though relations are developing in the right direction, it should be considered whether the pace of their development will not prevent them from intensification.

  • Institutionalization of Strategic Partnerships : Comparative Analysis of Established European Union Partnerships with the United States, Japan and Canada

    Author: Agata Domachowska
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8521-9399
    Author: Karolina Gawron-Tabor
    Institution: WSB University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8535-913X
    Author: Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0021-2519
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 200-222
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.12
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6012.pdf

    Strategic partnerships are nowadays one of the tools most willingly applied in foreign policy. The subject of the presented analysis is the institutionalization process of a strategic partnership understood as the functioning of certain norms and rules in a given relationship (expressed in the founding documents of partnerships) and the regularization of joint bodies and meeting formats. The aim of the article is a comparative analysis of institutional solutions applied in the European Union’s strategic partnerships with its established partners: the United States, Japan, and Canada. The results show that it is possible to identify a pattern of institutionalization process used by the European Union in its relations with strategic partners; they also reveal how great importance contemporary players in the international arena attach to institutionalization processes in their mutual relations.

  • Analiza porównawcza frakcji w Partii Liberalno-Demokratycznej oraz grup w Partii Demokratycznej po alternacji władzy w Japonii w 2009 roku

    Author: Karol Żakowski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 32-45
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2015.45.02
    PDF: apsp/45/apsp4502.pdf

    COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACTIONS IN THE LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND GROUPS INSIDE THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF JAPAN AFTER ALTERNATION OF POWER IN 2009

    The article examines the changes in factional system of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) after electoral victory in 2009. During opposition period, DPJ factions were believed to be much less significant groups than their counterparts in the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). Nevertheless, after the DPJ assumed power, its intra-party groups, to a certain degree, started functioning as LDP factions. Over the years, their ideological leanings weakened and instead of realizing distinctive political vision, they started focusing on pragmatic struggle for power in the party. In 2009 – 2012 period, the competition between intra-party mainstreams and anti-mainstreams increased, challenging the unity of the DPJ. The significance of factional divisions was also clearly visible in the distribution of governmental portfolios by succeeding prime ministers. Although DPJ factions were still not as powerful as LDP factions, they played a much greater role than before in maintaining intra-party balance and structuring intra-party competition.

  • Profilaktyka presuicydalna w Polsce i Japonii. Analiza na przykładzie kampanii „Zobacz… Znikam” oraz „Sleep Campaign” – „Tato, jak spałeś?”

    Author: Marlena Stradomska
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 87-97
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kimwe2019107
    PDF: kim/2019_1/kim2019107.pdf

    Suicidal prevention in Poland and Japan. Analysis on the example campaign “Look… I disappearing”, “Sleep Campaign” - “Dad, how did you sleep?”

    Japan appears as a distant, modern and highly developed country, as compared to Poland is an economic power. These countries divide ten thousand kilometers, the Land of the Rising Sun is the only place in the world where you can interact with unique culture and modern technology. However, despite the many differences associated with the functioning of both countries, they share many common components, for example those that relate to health care. The suicide problem occurs both in Japan and Poland. There is no single cause of suicide, which is why prevention, protection of the health and lives of citizens is so important. The article includes preventive programs and social campaigns on the example of each state. Social campaign of the Foundation “Zobacz… Jestem”-“Look.. I disappearing” and Campaign Otōsan, genkidesuka? (お父さん、元気ですか) called Sleep Campaing – “Dad, how did you sleep?”, which is implemented in Japan.

  • Strategic Use of Early Elections in Japan : Comparison of the Koizumi and Abe Cabinets

    Author: Karol Żakowski
    Institution: University of Łódź
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 78-91
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.63.06
    PDF: apsp/63/apsp6306.pdf

    The aim of this article is to analyze political objectives and repercussions of the dissolutions of the House of Representatives by Prime Ministers Koizumi Jun’ichirō in 2005 and Abe Shinzō in 2014. In both cases dissolutions took place less than two years after the previous elections. The paper argues that the strengthened power of the heads of government after electoral and administrative reforms facilitated them to take advantage of Diet dissolution to overcome opposition by veto players. By appealing to the public Koizumi planned to privatize the Japan Post and Abe intended to postpone the consumption tax hike. In both cases the prime ministers used early elections to enhance their position in the ruling party. As a result, Koizumi managed to overcome pressure from postal employees and Abe gained leverage over Ministry of Finance (MOF) bureaucrats.

  • Nierozwiązane dwudziestowieczne problemy polityczne w stosunkach japońsko-chińskich w XXI wieku

    Author: Robert Jakimowicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 142-167
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm201908
    PDF: ksm/24/ksm201908.pdf

    The article is focused on four problems in Japanese-Chinese relations in two first decades of the 21st century. These problems were not solved by the last three decades of the 20th century. They are following: the dispute about Senkaku (Diaoyu) Islands, the matter of the textbooks, the visits in the Yasukuni Shrine, the problem of Japanese- -Taiwanese relations. The author carries out the short analysis of their evolution and meaning for the present Japanese-Chinese relations.

  • Przede wszystkim honor. Przyczyny i przejawy specyficznego postrzegania jeniectwa w kulturze Japonii – w kontraście do norm społeczeństw zachodnich

    Author: Kamil Weber
    Institution: Centralne Muzeum Jeńców Wojennych
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6904-0073
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 25-41
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2021202
    PDF: so/20/so2002.pdf

    Cultural differences between Western and Eastern civilizations are noticeable in the system of professed values and in many aspects of life. This also applies to the approach to captives, which was clearly demonstrated by the events of the first years after the end of World War II. An example could be the way in which former Japanese and German soldiers, who were captured after the end of the war, were treated after their return to homeland. This article aims to show the sources of these differences and, to a lesser extent, examples of behaviors which they caused. The analysis consists of references to historical, economic, social, religious, and psychological conditions, which, as intertwined, resulted in the emergence of different perceptions of an individual’s role in a society and his obligations toward the community. These conditions determined the specific attitudes of representatives of each culture in difficult war and post-war circumstances. Explaining the Japanese soldiers’ willingness to sacrifice and the importance of honor for them, reference was made to the influences of Confucianism, Buddhism, Shinto, and the bushido tradition. Showing the deeply rooted reasons for the attitudes described in the article was therefore supposed to enable their explanation.

  • Balancing the Win-Sets: Agricultural Lobby and Japan’s Accession to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    Author: Karol Żakowski
    Institution: University of Łódź
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 198-216
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.71.12
    PDF: apsp/71/apsp7112.pdf

    Due to strong connections with the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), the agricultural lobby constituted a considerable obstacle in liberalization of trade by Japan. Nevertheless, in the last years, its influence on governmental policy has been waning. Referring to the theory of two-level games, the article analyzes the discourse on accession to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement to examine the weakening dependence of Japanese politicians on support from the Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives. It is argued that the Japanese government managed to sign both the TPP Agreement in 2016 and its successor, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership in 2018, thanks to the institutional strength and negotiation strategy of the Abe administration.

  • Hentai – erotyka z mangi i anime

    Author: Tomasz Burdzik
    Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 340-353
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.03.17
    PDF: kie/103/kie10317.pdf

    The aim of this paper is to present Japanese comics (manga) and cartoons (anime) with sexual content called hentai. I briefly review some history of Japanese art and culture, in which sexuality has always been a legitimate subject for art and which forms the cultural underpinnings of manga. I summarize the erotic themes and visions of manga with sexual content, including female and male homosexuality (yuri, yaoi), heterosexuality (ecchi, bakunyū/kyonyuu), BDSM (kinbari), transvestitism (futanari), children (lolicon, shotakon). In conclusion, I pose the question of the need to adopt the right perspective to understand the often surprising manifestations of Japanese sexuality.

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