• Institutionalization of Strategic Partnerships : Comparative Analysis of Established European Union Partnerships with the United States, Japan and Canada

    Author: Agata Domachowska
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8521-9399
    Author: Karolina Gawron-Tabor
    Institution: WSB University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8535-913X
    Author: Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0021-2519
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 200-222
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.12
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6012.pdf

    Strategic partnerships are nowadays one of the tools most willingly applied in foreign policy. The subject of the presented analysis is the institutionalization process of a strategic partnership understood as the functioning of certain norms and rules in a given relationship (expressed in the founding documents of partnerships) and the regularization of joint bodies and meeting formats. The aim of the article is a comparative analysis of institutional solutions applied in the European Union’s strategic partnerships with its established partners: the United States, Japan, and Canada. The results show that it is possible to identify a pattern of institutionalization process used by the European Union in its relations with strategic partners; they also reveal how great importance contemporary players in the international arena attach to institutionalization processes in their mutual relations.

  • Strategic Use of Early Elections in Japan : Comparison of the Koizumi and Abe Cabinets

    Author: Karol Żakowski
    Institution: University of Łódź
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 78-91
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.63.06
    PDF: apsp/63/apsp6306.pdf

    The aim of this article is to analyze political objectives and repercussions of the dissolutions of the House of Representatives by Prime Ministers Koizumi Jun’ichirō in 2005 and Abe Shinzō in 2014. In both cases dissolutions took place less than two years after the previous elections. The paper argues that the strengthened power of the heads of government after electoral and administrative reforms facilitated them to take advantage of Diet dissolution to overcome opposition by veto players. By appealing to the public Koizumi planned to privatize the Japan Post and Abe intended to postpone the consumption tax hike. In both cases the prime ministers used early elections to enhance their position in the ruling party. As a result, Koizumi managed to overcome pressure from postal employees and Abe gained leverage over Ministry of Finance (MOF) bureaucrats.

  • Balancing the Win-Sets: Agricultural Lobby and Japan’s Accession to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    Author: Karol Żakowski
    Institution: University of Łódź
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 198-216
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.71.12
    PDF: apsp/71/apsp7112.pdf

    Due to strong connections with the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), the agricultural lobby constituted a considerable obstacle in liberalization of trade by Japan. Nevertheless, in the last years, its influence on governmental policy has been waning. Referring to the theory of two-level games, the article analyzes the discourse on accession to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement to examine the weakening dependence of Japanese politicians on support from the Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives. It is argued that the Japanese government managed to sign both the TPP Agreement in 2016 and its successor, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership in 2018, thanks to the institutional strength and negotiation strategy of the Abe administration.

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