On November 11, 2018, 100 years have passed since Poland regained its independence. This period, however, was not entirely the period of the peaceful development of a fully independent state, but a relatively short period of freedom (1918–1939) was interrupted by German occupation during World War II, and then by limited sovereignty and subjection to the Soviet Union in the years 1944–1989. It was not until 1989 that Poland entered again the path of political change that led to the democratization of social and political life and to the adoption in 1997 of the democratic Constitution that is still in force today. This difficult time is in line with the equally difficult history of the Polish judiciary, with the changing constitutional foundations of its organization and sometimes dramatic practice of its functioning. The aim of this study is to synthetically outline these issues, including the basic Polish constitutional norms of 1918– 2018 regarding the judiciary and a brief description of their impact on the functioning of Polish judicial authorities.