Konstytucja RP

  • Does the Civil Society Concept Exclude the Possibility of Lockout? Considerations upon the Basis of the Polish Constitution from 1997 and the Standards of the Council of Europe and European Union

    Author: Hanna Wiczanowska
    E-mail: hanna.wiczanowska@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 171-184
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.06.11
    PDF: ppk/40/ppk4011.pdf

    One of the most crucial principles of democratic regime is the concept of civil society. The implications of such concept are also visible within the area of labour law as the right to strike has been perceived as its core element. The primary purpose of the presented article is to consider whether the application of the doctrine of civil society automatically disables for a recognition of lockout for the employers’ organizations within the Polish legal system as well as international standards. The presented paper will mainly rely upon the legal dogmatic analysis of the provisions of Polish Constitution from 1997 and international regulations. The author will also use the elements of the comparative analysis between Polish standards amd norms enacted by the Council of Europe and the European Union. The innovative approach of the paper is the complex analysis of the Polish solutions from the intenational perspective in terms of equality between labour and the capital.

  • Konstytucyjne prawo do zabezpieczenia społecznego

    Author: Katarzyna Łobos
    E-mail: katarzyna.lobos@tlen.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 207-230
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.11
    PDF: ppk/38/ppk3811.pdf

    The subject of this article is the issue of the constitutional right of citizens to social security when reaching the retirement age. The author points out the constitutional principles which guarantee the protection of pension benefits and gives examples of statements of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Tribunal with respect to the issue of social security schemes in their judgments. This article also discusses the scope of freedom which the Constitution grants to a legislator and the boundaries within which a legislator may act as far as the selection of solutions for the implementation of this right is concerned.

  • Zasada „lex retro non agit”. Czy prawo nie działa wstecz?

    Author: Justyna Kornaszewska
    E-mail: justyna.kornaszewska@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 171-183
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2018.02.09
    PDF: ppk/42/ppk4209.pdf

    The principle of non-retroactivity is recognized as one of the foundations of the civilized system of the modern state. The essence of the principle of non-retroactivity can be reduced to the assertion that the law should, in principle, act “for the future”, therefore it should not be legal norms that would apply to events that occurred and ended before their entry into force. In other words, the legal consequences of events taking place under the old norms should be assessed according to these norms, even if new regulations are already in force at the moment of making such an assessment. The retroactive act of the regulations is when the lawmaker orders certain relevant legal facts, existing before the day of entry into force of the new provisions, assessed in the light of these new provisions, introducing a fiction that these provisions were already in force on the date of the assessed facts. If the regulation contained in the regulation obviously acts “for the future” and at the same time has legal effects only 3 months after the entry into force of the act, it does not violate the principle of non-retroactivity. This doesn’t mean that without violating the principle of non-retroactivity, the legislator may freely interfere in existing legal relations and modify them freely. The boundary here is, above all, observance of the principle of protection of acquired rights and principles of protection of trust in the state and the law. It is unacceptable to create norms retrospectively, if the entities to whom these standards relate could not rationally anticipate such decisions, and extraordinary circumstances or goods subject to constitutional protection, such decisions do not justify. You can withdraw from it, but only exceptionally and for justified reasons, giving the norms the ability to influence the existing situations, if there were valid reasons, and the interested entities had grounds to expect the adoption of such standards.

  • Konstytucyjna zasada wolności działalności gospodarczej versus konstytucyjny nakaz ochrony środowiska

    Author: Marieta Czekałowska
    E-mail: marietacz@ wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 175-192
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2016.02.09
    PDF: ppk/30/ppk3009.pdf

    Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie zasady wolności działalności gospodarczej oraz nakazu ochrony środowiska na gruncie norm konstytucyjnych, w tym w kontekście wątpliwości związanych z ich wysłowieniem w tekście Konstytucji RP. Na przykładzie wybranego orzecznictwa i doktryny, przedstawiono zasadę proporcjonalności dopuszczającą ograniczenia konstytucyjnych praw i wolności na linii ochrona środowiska versus wolność działalności gospodarczej. Ponadto, w artykule wskazano niektóre przypadki z judykatury oraz nauki prawa, ilustrujące prymat ochrony środowiska nad wolnością gospodarczą. Dostrzeżono także problem związany z brakiem bądź,,niepełnym” unormowaniem legislacyjnym z zakresu ochrony środowiska, mogący świadczyć o tym, iż w niektórych przypadkach wolność przedsiębiorczości przejawia się jako wartość donioślejsza niż ochrona środowiska.

  • Konstytucyjność ograniczeń prawa do sądu w sprawach z zakresu ochrony konkurencji i konsumentów

    Author: Wojciech Szydło
    E-mail: wojciech.szydlo@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 163-181
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2016.03.07
    PDF: ppk/31/ppk3107.pdf

    W artykule omówione zostały ograniczenia de lege lata w zakresie konstytucyjnie zagwarantowanego prawa do sądu, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem spraw z zakresu prawa konkurencji i konsumentów. Dokonano oceny konstytucyjności rozwiązań przyjętych przez polskiego ustawodawcę oraz uwypuklono konstytucyjnie zakreślone granice prawa do sądu w omawianej kategorii spraw. Autor podjął refleksję nad istniejącym obecnie system sądowej kontroli, zastanawiając się, czy nie jest on przypadkiem w pewnych jego elementach dysfunkcjonalny oraz w jaki sposób można by go ewentualnie zastąpić czy też substytuować innym systemem ochrony praw przedsiębiorców, przede wszystkim zaś ochrony praw proceduralnych, który byłby zgodny z obecnie obowiązującą Konstytucją RP, czy dosłowniej z konstytucyjnie określonym prawem do sądu.

  • Złożoność pojęcia „bezpieczeństwo energetyczne” i jego podstawy w Konstytucji RP

    Author: Jakub Robel
    E-mail: j.robell@interia.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 135-157
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2015.04.07
    PDF: ppk/26/ppk2607.pdf

    One of the important dimensions of the evaluation of society existence is energy security. Providing the right framework for the electricity sector is the basis for the operation of this type of security in its economic dimension, and so this issue can be seen as one of the top priorities of energy policies. This raises the need for an appropriate legal framework to enable proper interaction of administration bodies responsible for the overall relations, both inside and outside the state. Associated with this is also the issue of the appropriate rank of the fundamental – constitutional – norms. The Polish example of a system of constitutional law shows that, despite the lack of a reference to this issue in the Constitution, by means of interpretation of “sustainable development” (art. 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland) one can find the relevant legislation, allowing the chief state authorities to carry out the activity in relation to the issue of “energy security”.

  • Parlamentaryzacja marokańskiego systemu rządów na gruncie konstytucji z dnia 29 lipca 2011 r.

    Author: Łukasz Jakubiak
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 95-115
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2014.04.05
    PDF: ppk/20/ppk2005.pdf

    The paper concerns the phenomenon of parliamentarisation of the Moroccan system of government in the light of the constitution of 2011. The act was adopted as a result of civil unrest known as the so-called Arab Spring. The new constitution replaced the basic law of 1996. According to the new constitutional provisions, the role of the monarch has been limited. At the same time, the constitution has improved the position of the government headed by the prime minister. Moreover, the status of the parliament has been changed. By the way of example, the king appoints the prime minister from within the political party, which wins the parliamentary elections, and with a view to their results. In comparison with the previous constitution, the government seems to be more strongly connected with the parliament – especially with the first chamber. The latter has better tools for parliamentary oversight. Currently, the Moroccan system of government is closer to the European model of parliamentarianism.

  • Ogłoszenie jako warunek wejścia w życie aktu normatywnego

    Author: Kamil Spryszak
    E-mail: k.spryszak@onet.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kilecach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3318-3742
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 181-194
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.03.09
    PDF: ppk/49/ppk4909.pdf

    The art. 88.1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland states: “The condition precedent for the coming into force of statutes, regulations and enactments of local law shall be the promulgation thereof”. This rule have an important meaning to protection of citizens’ rights and is one of the fundamental idea of a democratic state of law. Promulgation is not only a technical duty, but has important element of the binding of normative acts. The author analyses different procedures dealing with promulgation of statutes, regulations and enactments of local law. He especially concentrates on promulgations of ratified international agreements and promulgation of the European Union’s normative acts.

  • Przesłanki wywłaszczenia w świetle norm konstytucyjnych

    Author: Paweł Śmiałek
    E-mail: smialekolsztyn@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6185-3451
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 261-280
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2018.05.15
    PDF: ppk/45/ppk4515.pdf

    Wywłaszczenie jest jednym z najbardziej dolegliwych środków, jakie organy administracji publicznej mogą zastosować wobec obywatela. Jego skutkiem jest pozbawienie własności, podstawowego prawa ekonomicznego, gwarantowanego Konstytucją Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Z drugiej strony, jest to instytucja obowiązująca w większości systemów prawnych i trudno jest wyobrazić sobie sprawne działania państwa bez możliwości stosowania instytucji wywłaszczenia. W związku z tym została unormowana w Konstytucji RP i prawie międzynarodowym. Jako że regulacje te mają charakter ogólny i wymagają ustawowego uregulowania, to można postawić pytanie, czy ustawodawca prawidłowo implementował normy konstytucyjne kształtując instytucję wywłaszczenia na poziomie ustawowym. Stanowione normy powinny być zgodne nie tylko z art. 21 ust. 2, ale także z art. 2, art. 31 ust. 3, art. 64 ust. 2 i 3 Konstytucji RP. Wynikające z tych norm konstytucyjnych zasady ochrony praw nabytych, zaufania obywateli do państwa, proporcjonalności, przyzwoitej legislacji a także przepisy regulujące materię wywłaszczenia, wskazują na normatywne granice ingerencji władz publicznych w prawa majątkowe jednostki.

  • Konstytucyjne podstawy wspierania rodziny przez władze publiczne w Polsce

    Author: Paweł Bucoń
    E-mail: p.bucon@interia.pl
    Institution: Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4413-2588
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 113-130
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.04.06
    PDF: ppk/50/ppk5006.pdf

    The article is devoted to the problem of the support for the family by public authorities in the light of the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. The article discusses the essence of the family, the good of the family as a constitutional value, the right of a family in a difficult material and social situation to special help from public authorities and the issue of help given to the mother before and after childbirth (Article 71 of the Constitution). According to the author, the Constitution creates sufficient grounds for providing support by public authorities to families which require such support. In this respect, the key issue is the requirement to take into account the good of the family in the state’s social and economic policy. However, the final shape and scope of assistance is determined by law.

  • The President of the Republic of Poland as the Guardian of Sovereignty and Security of the State

    Author: Katarzyna Dunaj
    E-mail: katarzyna.dunaj@up.krakow.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4788-6019
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 51-58
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.05.03
    PDF: ppk/51/ppk5103.pdf

    This article analyzes tasks and competences of the President of the Republic of Poland as the guardian of sovereignty and security of the state. The author recognizes major importance of the head of state in that field. The President is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces and exercises powers connected with this function. The President also exercises a number of other powers, including those of an extraordinary nature (in- troduction of martial law and the state of emergency, declaring a time of war, declaring a general or partial mobilization). The author of the article underlines the necessity of cooperation of the President and the Council of Ministers in the field of the state securi- ty. It results from the fact that some powers are subject of countersignature of the Prime Minister or are exercised at the request of the Council of Ministers or its members (the Prime Minister, the Minister of National Defense).

  • Law in “Times of Crisis” and Social Justice - General Remarks in the Era of COVID-19

    Author: Krzysztof Wygoda
    E-mail: krzysztof.wygoda@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Wrocław
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0997-5512
    Author: Dariusz Wasiak
    E-mail: dariusz.wasiak@wsb.wroclaw.pl
    Institution: WSB University in Wrocław
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6057-7475
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 235-244
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.19
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5819.pdf

    The purpose of the article is to signal that actions aimed at implementing the principle of social justice (in the context of Article 2 of the Polish Constitution) require the legislator to consider a number of variables. It is particularly about the principle of equality and guaranteeing an appropriate level of security (including social security), as well as respect for acquired rights and trust in the state and law. Legislative actions that result in legitimate securitization of the law may of course lead to the limitation of the principle of social justice, as long as they take into account the objective needs of safety and health protection. The use of inadequate measures by the legislator or the creation of apparent threats and the related fear by the power apparatus will evoke a deep sense of injustice and lead to violent opposition from society.

  • Access to Public Sector Information in the Perspective of the Constitutional Principle of the Common Good

    Author: Katarzyna Dunaj
    E-mail: katarzyna.dunaj@up.krakow.pl
    Institution: Pedagogical University of Krakow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4788-6019
    Author: Bogdan Fischer
    E-mail: bfischer@fischer.biz.pl
    Institution: Pedagogical University of Krakow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1893-5870
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 343-354
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.28
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5828.pdf

    The adoption of the UE Directive on Open Data and Re-use of Public Sector Information gives rise to necessity of its implementation by the Member States of the European Union. The process of implementing the Directive in Poland has also a significant constitutional value, because - according to the authors of this article - its content is realization of the principle of the common good (Article 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland: “The Republic of Poland shall be the common good of all its citizens”). This is because data sharing has not only economic value, allowing the entity using access to public information to achieve a financial benefit, but also in other areas, where, in principle, both parties (a person and public authority) benefit from such action. Therefore, the role of public authorities should be to ensure the widest possible access to public sector information in order to implement the constitutional principle of the common good.

  • Prawo do zdrowego środowiska jako konstytucyjnie gwarantowane prawo podmiotowe

    Author: Dagmara Kuźniar
    E-mail: dkuzniar@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2846-9575
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 201-216
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.03.13
    PDF: ppk/61/ppk6113.pdf

    The Right to a Healthy Environment as a Constitutionally Guaranteed Subjective Right

    Environmental protection and the protection of the individual are closely related. This relationship has many aspects, which are subject to more and more analysis in the literature. The author is of the opinion that the right to a healthy environment should be treated as one of the individual human rights. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the necessity to sanction the right to a healthy environment in the Polish Constitution. For this purpose, the provisions of the constitution were analyzed, and the constitutional practice of european countries and international practice were presented.

  • Zakaz zgromadzeń w Polsce w okresie stanu epidemii a odpowiedzialność karna

    Author: Natalia Daśko
    E-mail: ndasko@umk.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernia w Toruniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9122-4883
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 163-173
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.12
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6312.pdf

    The ban on assemblies in Poland during the epidemic and criminal liability

    During the 16 months of the epidemic threat, and then the state of the epidemic, the executive authority introduced restrictive restrictions in the area of freedom of assembly, periodically forbidding them completely. Regardless of the bans introduced, during the indicated period, there were numerous protests and demonstrations triggered by the lockdown, government policy or the judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal of October 22, 2020. The author tries to answer the question whether the bans and restrictions introduced by the executive met the constitutional standard, and if not, whether the behavior of organizers or participants of assemblies constituting the implementation of their constitutional freedoms could fulfill the criteria of specific offenses or crimes. For this purpose, the author analyzes, inter alia, judgments of common courts, as well as the judgment of the Supreme Court of July 1, 2021.

  • Członkostwo Polski w Unii Europejskiej jako przesłanka możliwych zmian w Konstytucji RP

    Author: Jerzy Jaskiernia
    E-mail: jerzyj@hot.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9401-5999
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 203-215
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.15
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6315.pdf

    Poland’s membership in the European Union as a premise for possible changes to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland

    The analysis addresses the problem of the extent to which the consequences of Poland’s membership in the European Union should be reflected in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. The Polish Basic Law, in Art. 90, anticipated Poland’s membership in the EU. However, despite the attempts made, it was not possible – apart from the constitutionalization of the European Arrest Warrant – to introduce changes to the constitution resulting from EU membership. There are a number of regulatory gaps that deserve to be filled even if it is not possible to reach an agreement at the level of 2/3 of the support in the Sejm on the issue of a comprehensive „European clause”. The jurisprudence of the Constitutional Tribunal should not replace the constitution-maker. It is necessary for the constitution to fulfill its legal, political and educational function.

  • Bezpieczeństwo jako dobro publiczne w świetle prawa konstytucyjnego

    Author: Barbara Szykuła-Piec
    E-mail: bpiec@sgsp.edu.pl
    Institution: Szkoła Główna Służby Pożarniczej
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4533-232X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 323-334
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.25
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6325.pdf

    Security as a public good in the light of constitutional law

    The study is a voice in the discussion: security as a good. In the light of the constitutional principle of the common good, a redefinition of security was proposed as the sum of the conditions of social life enabling and facilitating the integral development of all members of the community. The common and public good are products produced by state structures and their members. In order to minimize the attitudes of „common – nobody’s” and free-riders, in order to create dependence, responsibility to care for good, the topic of the theory of group solidarity was raised.

  • Constitutional Right of the Individual to Informational Autonomy in the Light of the Powers of the Police to Collect and Process Personal Data

    Author: Izabela Stańczuk
    E-mail: i.stanczuk@akademia.mil.pl
    Institution: War Studies University in Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2446-8428
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 439-450
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.35
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6435.pdf

    The article attempts to confront the individual’s constitutional right to informational autonomy and the powers of the Police in the framework of which the service may collect and process personal data. Bearing in mind the paramount role of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland and its special importance for the sphere of rights and freedoms, the key regulations devoted to the right to privacy and the possibility of limiting informational autonomy were referred to. Treating the constitutional content as fundamental in the relationship between the individual and the state authorities, they were referred to the powers of the Police based on which the service may legally interfere in the information sphere of the individual. It was also stressed that the multiplicity of powers and the expansion of their catalog make it necessary to pay more attention to applying the proportionality mechanism.

  • The Polish Tax Ordinance Bill as an Instrument Supplementing the Constitutional Tax Law Making Principles

    Author: Leonard Etel
    E-mail: etel@uwb.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Białystok
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8065-2276
    Author: Mariusz Popławski
    E-mail: m.poplawski@uwb.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Białystok
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1403-3033
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 491-503
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.39
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6439.pdf

    The article presents the process of preparing the Polish Tax Ordinance Bill and its fundamental assumptions as the codification of the general part of taxation law in the light of constitutional rules provided for the tax law-making process. First, it focuses on the importance and the tasks of the General Taxation Law Codification Committee. Then it presents the drawbacks of the Ordinance currently in force, which justify its replacement with a new act. The next part of the article discusses the assumptions and objectives of the bill adopted by the Committee. The last part presents the substantive layout of the new act. The concluding part argues for the urgent need to introduce the new Tax Ordinance into the domestic legal system as this act would supplement the principles of tax law resulting from the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.

  • Do Armed Forces Personnel Need a Trade Union? The Perspectives of European Standards and the Constitution of the Republic of Poland on Freedom of Association

    Author: Michał Balcerzak
    E-mail: michal.balcerzak@umk.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6421-1742
    Author: Agnieszka Bień-Kacała
    E-mail: abien@umk.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9559-3130
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 519-528
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.41
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6441.pdf

    The article aims to discuss the European standards concerning the freedom of association of armed forces personnel. Relevant norms in this regard result from human rights treaty law but also from soft-law elaborated within the Council of Europe. The authors juxtapose the existing standards with the scope of the freedom of association provided in Polish Constitution of 1997 and relevant domestic law. They ask whether the armed forces personnel need to form and join trade unions to secure their rights or perhaps the existing forms of exercising the freedom of association are satisfactory? The authors conclude that the current legal solutions in Poland meet the European and constitutional standards, and allow the Polish Armed Forces to observe neutrality regarding political matters. Nevertheless, the prohibition to form and join trade unions in Polish armed forces is of statutory rather than constitutional origin.

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