konstytucjonalizm

  • Majowa Jutrzenka czyli gwałt na rodzimym konstytucjonalizmie

    Author: Artur Ławniczak
    E-mail: lavka@prawo.uni.wroc.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 91-109
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2016.05.06
    PDF: ppk/33/ppk3306.pdf

    Polski konstytucjonalizm ma znacznie starszą metrykę niż zazwyczaj kojarzony z nim 1791 r. Wszak w materialnym znaczeniu terminu konstytucja jest synomimem ustroju politycznego, a zatem towarzyszy ona polskiej państwowości od jej zarania. Ewolucja rodzimej monarchii doprowadziła do powstania znaczących dokumentów jurydycznych, tworzących sformalizowaną część nadwiślańskiego konstytucjonalizmu, uzupełnianą przez zwyczaje. Obejmowały one niespisane ustrojowe fundamenty, które w 1767 r. uległy instytucjonalizacji w postaci Praw kardynalnych. Można je traktować jako pierwszą polsko-litewską konstytucję, jeśli pod tym pojęciem będziemy rozumieć zawierający najważniejsze dla państwa postanowienia akt o najwyższej jurydycznej mocy. W 1791 r. stała się nim Ustawa Rządowa z 3 Maja, przekreślająca dorobek rodzimego konstytucjonalizmu w imię dostosowania się do ówczesnych eurostandartów.

  • Pozycja ustrojowa Ombudsmana na Łotwie

    Author: Andrzej Pogłódek
    E-mail: andrzejpoglodek@interia.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 149-162
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2015.03.07
    PDF: ppk/25/ppk2507.pdf

    The institution of Ombudsman originated in Scandinavia. The spread of the institution – which is now a solution typical of democratic countries – took place at the end of the twentieth century. At that time the institution has been widely welcome in the former socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In Latvia, it is not a constitutional body. Latvian Ombudsman acts on the basis of the Act of 2006, its predecessor was the National Bureau of Human Rights. Latvian legislator in a manner appropriate to democratic standards specify the position of Ombudsman of the political system and created him an opportunity to actually carry out the tasks assigned to it. Unfortunately, the practical effects of the activities of the Ombudsman leave much to be desired.

  • W przededniu narodzin nowoczesnej doktryny państwa prawa? Stosunek polskich liberałów do idei rządów prawa w początkach XIX wieku

    Author: Michał Gałędek
    E-mail: Michal.galedek@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9538-6860
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 15-29
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.03.01
    PDF: ppk/61/ppk6101.pdf

    On the Eve of the Birth of the Modern Doctrine of the Legal State? The Attitude of Polish Liberals to the Idea of the Rule of Law at the Beginning of the 19th Century

    The article analyzes the problem of the attitude towards the idea of the rule of law of representatives of the Polish elite at the beginning of the 19th century. The author presents the development of the idea of the rule of law in the introduction. He verifies the thesis that the ideological basis for the concept of the rule of law was the Enlightenment thought on the basis of which the liberal doctrine developed. He used it to seek an answer to the question about the characteristics of the model of government established by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland of 1815. The author attempted to prove that, since the Kingdom (existing until 1831) with one of the most liberal constitutions in the first half of the 19th century was in force, then this act met all the conditions required for the establishment of the rule of law according to the standards adopted in that century. These considerations conclude with remarks on the further evolution of Polish liberal thought in the 1820s. It began to differ from the liberal assumptions on which the German Rechtstaat doctrine was built. Paradoxically, Rechtstaat concept had much more in common to Polish liberalism in the earlier (proto-liberal) stage of its development in the times of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1815) than of the Kingdom of Poland (1815–1831).

  • Reforma konstytucyjna w Federacji Rosyjskiej w 2020 r.

    Author: Rafał Czachor
    E-mail: rczachor@afm.edu.pl
    Institution: Krakowska Akademia im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5929-9719
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 261-276
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.03.17
    PDF: ppk/61/ppk6117.pdf

    Russia’s Constitutional Reform of 2020

    In 2020 took place the most serious constitutional reform in the Russian Federation. The amendments result in the strengthening of the President in the political system, enable V. Putin to maintain power until 2034 and introduce some other significant changes. The aim of the following paper is to present the circumstances of the reform, the contents of the amendments, and their overall summary. Particular attention was paid to the following issues: relations among main institutions of state power, the place of international law in the sources of Russia’s law and other amendments related to constitutional identity and axiology. The reform results in strengthening the position of the President, even though still within the semi-presidential model of the political system, the diminished role of the Parliament, local self-government and deprivation of the autonomy of the judiciary.

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