labour market

  • David Cameron’s ‘Huge Mistake’. Closing of the United Kingdom Labour Market for Eastern European Immigrants from Polish and British Perspective

    Author: Bartłomiej H. Toszek
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 122-138
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201408
    PDF: rop/2014/rop201408.pdf

    Eastern European immigrants coming to the UK since 2004 (in 2/3 from Poland) by their amount of work have concurred to serious growth of the GDP. But simultaneously they have been burden for British welfare system (among others by taking benefits for family members living outside the UK) and taking job even for minimum salary what have caused growth of native British unemployment. In this situation Conservative-Liberal Government leading by David Cameron have decided to limit an access to the UK labour market by language knowledge tests and tightening social benefits policy to job seekers. With informal support of main opposition parties (i.e. the Labour Party and the UKIP) D. Cameron have taken risky game showing he has been able to fight for his nation’s interests even in spite of huge protests of Polish and other Eastern European countries politicians and against the European Parliament resolution of 16 January 2014. But when turning out into a defender of Britons’ rights he also has showed that there have been deep divisions between “old” and “new” Europe still after 10 years of the EU’s biggest enlargement in 2004.

  • Unemployment among the Youth – the Most Crucial Challenge in the Social Policy of the European Union

    Author: Ryszard Tomczyk
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 258-274
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201316
    PDF: rop/2013/rop201316.pdf

    Now, unemployment among young generation of the Europeans is one of the most crucial problems in the policy of European Union and of the Member States. The economic crisis caused social exclusion of the significant part of the youth who after graduation augments number of the unemployed. Young generation shows less interest in running own business. Fear of bankruptcy forcibly decreases economic activity. European Union for few years has been undertaking measures aiming at coordination of the systems combating unemployment in the Member States. In the same time, it has been developing programs supporting actions undertaken in various states in the field of creating jobs, vocational trainings and probations addressed to the youth. Lowering unemployment rate among the youth is one of the priorities of the strategy Europe 2020. European politicians think that unemployment may be decreased based on the active “knowledge triangles” in which education of various levels, employers and business institutions participate and act together. Economic analysts however underline that unemployment among the youth may be decreased only when global economic growth occurs.

  • Przeszłość prawa pracy a współczesna polityka rynku pracy w Polsce

    Author: Marek Barszcz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 249-262
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201613
    PDF: siip/15/siip1513.pdf

    History of the labour law and the contemporary labor market policy in Poland

    In 1989, he began the process of systemic transformation, which concerned the labor market, based on a rejection of the current legal status of labor law. In the study, changes in the market, the author used the analysis of the institutional and legal in conjunction with the recognition decision policy. The author took the research period of systemic transformation and change in recent years (since 2014) with the proposals programmatic political parties.

  • Ocena programu kierunków zamawianych jako narzędzia kształcenia dla rynku pracy

    Author: Gabriela Grotkowska
    Author: Leszek Wincenciak
    Author: Tomasz Gajderowicz
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 198-215
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2017.03.12
    PDF: kie/117/kie11712.pdf

    This paper presents preliminary evaluation of the programme of, so called, ordered specializations. This programme in recent years has made a significant impact on the higher education system in Poland. The evaluation was made from an economic perspective considering the effectiveness of the programme. Due to lack of appropriate data it is too early for the comprehensive evaluation of the programme. Its effects will become visible in long-run perspective. In the article we use quantitative data from the surveys conducted for the purpose of the project evaluation (surveys with students, graduates, employers and representatives of Higher Education Institutions). The analysis shows that, although the programme has brought the effect of increasing the enrolment in selected fields of study, it did not necessarily lead to the achievement of labour market goals. In the context of the huge expenditure for the implementation of the programme (more than 1.2 billion PLN), the assessment of the economic efficiency of the programme is ambiguous. Conclusions of the evaluation of the programme are crucial in the context of the planned construction of similar actions in the future.

  • Educational mobility as a determinant of students’ personal and professional development

    Author: Magdalena Zapotoczna
    Institution: University of Zielona Góra
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 85-99
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/IFforE2019.05
    PDF: iffe/12/iffe1205.pdf

    The aim of the article is to analyse the extent to which the participation of students in learning mobility projects on the example of the Erasmus+ programme influences the improvement of their individual skills desired from the perspective of the labour market. The paper features an introduction that outlines the background to educational mobility. Susequently, historical context of learning mobility in Europe and the process of internationalisation of universities are presented as one consequence of the globalising labour market. In the next part of the paper, Erasmus+, i.e. the best-known programme promoting academic mobility in Europe, was presented. The final part contains a review of research on the competences of beneficiaries of learning mobility projects, supported by statistical data, and an att empt to draw a link between participation in student exchange and the chances of finding satisfactory employment after graduation. The basic research methods were literature review and analysis of statistical data, as well as available reports on the relationship between student mobility and competence development. The author refers to the results of studies carried out by the experts of the European Commission entitled Erasmus Impact Study (2014) and research reports of Foundation for the Development of the Education System Is mobility the key to a successful career? Tracer study report on vocational learners with transnational mobility experience (2018), Erasmus… and what next? Tracer study on education and careers of Polish students participating in Erasmus mobility projects (2019). Reports and expert studies on student mobility, such as: Flash Eurobarometer, Eurodata Student Mobility in European Higher Education i Mapping Mobility in European Higher Education constituted sources of statistical data. The analyses show that graduates with foreign mobility experience develop a number of characteristics and skills which increase their employability and career opportunities.

  • State Policy towards Labour Market Changes Caused by COVID-19

    Author: Magdalena Mikołajczyk
    Institution: Pedagogical University of Kraków
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 63-76
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.71.04
    PDF: apsp/71/apsp7104.pdf

    The aim of the paper is to present strategies for minimising negative effects of the crisis caused by COVID-19 by state authorities of non-European countries in the first months after the announcement of the pandemic. The focus is on employment and labour market policy instruments. The research is comparative in its nature and was conducted using the desk research and discourse analysis methods. The source/unit in the analysis were the rapid assessments of the employment impacts of COVID-19 submitted to the International Labour Organisation. The study did not cover European Union Member States. Among the instruments and countermeasures typical of employment and labour market policies, few innovative solutions were identified, tailored to local specifics and taking into account the effects of the pandemic – the ecological crisis and the emergence of technological unemployment. The results achieved implicate a number of further questions relevant for public policy research. Research shows that COVID-19 contributes to deepening of the polarisation of society and existing labour market policy instruments in countries will not be sufficient to stop social exclusion due to unemployment especially in countries with a predominantly informal economy. Meanwhile, a category of people has emerged, due to the suspension of business activities and internal migration, whose status is also “suspended” (liminal) between work and unemployment.

  • Rynek pracy w Polsce a pandemia COVID-19 jako wyzwanie dla polityki społecznej i jej polityk szczegółowych

    Author: Jacek Szkurłat
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego Kielce
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3645-5723
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 191-205
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202111
    PDF: cip/19/cip1911.pdf

    Pandemia COVID-19 jest czynnikiem, który może w znaczącym stopniu zmienić sytuację na rynku pracy w Polsce. Obecnie – choć poza sporem pozostaje to, że takie przekształcenia nastąpią – można jednakże mówić raczej o pewnych prognozach co do przewidywanych kierunków i stopnia możliwych modyfikacji w tym zakresie, a finalny ich stan będzie efektem tak czasu trwania swoistego „zawieszenia” działalności szeregu firm, ale i pracowników, jak i efektywności podejmowanych działań – zarówno w sferze medycznej, jak i ekonomicznej, czy społecznej. Przedstawiony artykuł jest jednym z głosów w dyskusji na wskazany temat, toczącej się w przestrzeni publicznej, której celem jest nie tylko wskazanie potencjalnych wektorów rozwoju rynku pracy w trakcie i po trwającej pandemii, ale także zidentyfikowanie jego głównych problemów. Bowiem to właśnie w okresach znacznego pogorszenia koniunktury ujawniają się nieprawidłowości i zaniedbania, które mogą mieć istotny wpływ na rynek pracy i jego uczestników.

  • Flexicurity Towards Responsibility for the Labour Market Changes

    Author: Agnieszka Makarewicz-Marcinkiewicz
    Institution: Poznań University of Life Sciences
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 151-163
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2014.44.09
    PDF: apsp/44/apsp4409.pdf

    The concept of flexicurity has been a key issue in the discussions and activities of institutions of the European Union in the field of employment and social policy for about two decades. The purpose of this article is to analyze the idea of flexicurity in the context of responsibility for development of the labour market. The responsibility is mostly transferred to the state and employees, while the employers are exempt from accountability for the social costs associated with the fluctuations in the economic cycle. The article contains the analysis of the labour market flexibilisation process and its compensation with the security system, critical approach to flexicurity models and challenges associated with the implementation of this concept.

  • Lifelong Education at the Faculty of Economics and Management at the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague

    Author: Andrea Jindrová
    Institution: Department of Statistics, Kamycka 129, Prague 6 – Suchdol
    Author: Hana Vostrá Vydrová
    Institution: Independent Researcher
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 115-126
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.14.38.4.08
    PDF: tner/201404/tner3808.pdf

    Lifelong learning is not an aim but a means for continuous and permanent development and successful advancement of each individual. Not only does it bring competitive advantage at the labour market, but it also helps to solve problems and provides new knowledge and contacts. Thanks to lifelong learning any individual has an opportunity to get educated at various stages of his life in accordance with his own interests and needs and his value at the labour market is increasing. Lifelong learning differs from school education by a variety of means, methods and motivation. The paper describes and analyses one of the main stages of lifelong learning, which is the adult education at the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague (CULS). The main aim of this paper is to provide basic information on the lifelong education at the faculty of Economics and Management of the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague. Selected statistical methods of quantitative research were used in order to analyse the above-mentioned issues. The data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and analysed using the one-dimensional as well as multidimensional statistical methods. The basis for the analysis itself were the data about students in the courses of lifelong education in the combined form of studying at the Faculty of Economics and Management (FEM) of CULS in Prague between the years 2004 – 2012.

  • Link Between Adult Literacy and Participation in the Labour Market: Central European Region

    Author: Jolita Dudaitė
    Institution: Mykolas Romeris University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9695-5394
    Author: Rūta Dačiulytė
    Institution: Mykolas Romeris University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7895-7465
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 43-55
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.22.67.1.03
    PDF: tner/202201/tner6703.pdf

    Human capital, together with financial and material resources, is an important factor in the economy of society. Human capital can be defined in different ways, but knowledge, abilities, skills, competences, or literacy, in general, are essential parts. It can be said that literacy is the cornerstone of human capital. According to the basic principles of the theory of employment, factors such as education, gender, age, health, marital status, and emigration have a major impact on participation in the labour market. However, in scientific discourse, there is a strong emphasis on these factors and the importance of literacy. However, there is a lack of studies specifically analysing the links between literacy and participation in the labour market. In particular, it is important to analyse whether literacy is equally important for participation in the labour market in different regions and countries. This article analyses the link between participation in the labour market and literacy in the Central European region. Six Central European countries are analysed based on the International Survey of Adult Skills OECD PIAAC. An analysis of the main parameters showing how a person participates in the labour market suggests there is a link between a person’s literacy and their working status, type of employment contract, managerial position, and economic sector.

  • Commodification of Labour in the Post-Socialist State. Liberal-Democratic versus Centralised-Autocratic Model of Society in Social Awareness

    Author: Tomasz Herudziński
    Institution: Warsaw University of Life Sciences
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 159-172
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.06.09
    PDF: kie/106/kie10609.pdf

    The article describes the commodification process, focusing on the sphere of labour. The specificity of the approach consists of treating labour as a component of the systemic transformation of the Polish society. The Polish people, on their way from real socialism to market democracy, are undergoing a particularly intense commodification process. This process has been intensified by Poland’s accession to the European Union and by globalisation, due to participation in supranational market systems at the regional (European) and global levels. Empirically, the commodification process has been analysed using awareness studies. Subjects were young inhabitants of Warsaw with higher education, and the study results were additionally related to nationallevel research. The labour sphere is seen here as a key element of the wider social reality and it is studied empirically in terms of individual orientations which the subjects exhibit towards normative social models. The processes of commodification and decommodification are seen in the context of the systemic transformation from centralisedautocratic to the marketdemocratic models of society. Attention has also been paid to the role of the welfare state, whose key function is to protect citizens from major risks, including the risk of being unemployed. The empirical study clearly shows the specificity of labour in commodification processes. Labour was shown to be an element that stands out from the other elements of the social system.

  • Hydrogen and Its Role in Post-Pandemic Recovery. Case Study of Portugal

    Author: Maciej Giers
    Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0870-9458
    Published online: 20 June 2022
    Final submission: 5 November 2021
    Printed issue: June 2022
    Source: Show
    Page no: 8
    Pages: 112-119
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202219
    PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202219_9.pdf

    The article aims to analyse the potential role that hydrogen could play in the post-pandemic recovery of Portugal and its climate policy. The article focuses on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and creating new workplaces. The basis for analysis is the Portuguese hydrogen strategy, published in May 2020 and other strategic documents. In the first part of the article, climate goals adopted by the European Union and Portugal are described and analysed. Then the hydrogen strategy of Portugal was analysed from the perspective of hydrogen contribution to the emission reduction by 2030. The article describes the role of hydrogen in the Portuguese economy, paying particular attention to the 2020–2030 horizon, but also covers a period till 2040. The second part analyses the impact of COVID-19 on the Portuguese economy. Based on the International Energy Agency’s estimates, the potential for creating new workplaces is described.

  • Education “Ever Anew” – A Reflection on the Changing Educational and Professional Reality in Theoretical and Practical Terms

    Author: Monika Christoph
    Institution: University of Adam Mickiewicz in Poznań
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4176-6099
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 29-47
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2022.02.02
    PDF: kie/136/kie13602.pdf

    The article aims to make a critical reflection, theoretical and practical, on the school and its functioning in the context of shaping the desired competences among graduates that distinguish them on the labour market. It is a strong impression that young people in the Polish classroom system still play the role of passive recipients of educational services rather than independent creators. Thus, there is a clear need to create high-quality bridges between the areas of pedagogical support for students in their educational and professional choices and the labour market and employers’ space in Poland. Education “ever anew” is the one that continually changes, adjusts its forms and contents to the changing socio-economic reality, creates a new quality focused on an individual and demanding recipient. The introduction takes the form of a brief reflection on the current dynamics of educational and professional life and the competences that will be needed in the future. The next section presents selected contexts and the diversity of the conditions of educational spaces in Poland. The summary contains inspiration for selected aspects of the future of education, such as the concept of learning in cyber parks and the use of “creative confidence” in learning.

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