liberalization

  • Systemic Transformations in Jordan in 1951-1957 - Unsuccessful Democracy

    Author: Bartosz Wróblewski
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4436-8221
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 511-522
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.41
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5841.pdf

    The following text discusses the first attempt to transform the authoritarian Jordan monarchy into a constitutional monarchy, in which the parliament chosen by the people was supposed, apart from the king, to serve the role of a real supervisor of the state. Such an attempt was made in 1951-1957. It ended up in a failure and, in fact, the return of the authoritarian methods of exercising the power. This failure resulted both from the specific circumstances of the contemporary Middle East, as well as certain permanent features of Arabic societies. Thus, it is important to trace back these events to show both the attempt at reforms, as well as the causes of the failure. The following text makes use first and foremost of English language resources concerning the history of Jordan. Also, the archive documents collected in the National Archives were used, especially the ones that refer to the correspondence between the authorities in London and the British embassy in Amman. To understand the issue, it will be necessary to go back beyond the year 1951 and to present in brief the very process of how the Hashemite monarchy came into existence.

  • Reformy społeczno-polityczne w Uzbekistanie w czasie prezydentury Szawkata Mirzijojewa

    Author: Przemysław Sieradzan
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9255-7417
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 104-127
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212806
    PDF: npw/28/npw2806.pdf

    Socio-political Reforms in Uzbekistan during the Presidency of Shavkat Mirziyoyev

    The paper aims to present various aspects of the reform process initiated and implemented by Shavkhat Mirziyoyev, the president of the Republic of Uzbekistan, since 2016. The main subjects of consideration are vectors of political change in the spheres of institutions of political power, economy and foreign policy in the broader context of the legacy of the first president Islam Karimov’s reign and the heritage of the Soviet period. The fundamental reforms have embraced democratization of political system, fight against corruption, extension of civil rights and abandoning of isolationism in international relations, and are sometimes decribed as the „Uzbek Thaw”. However they seem to be very meaningful, one will be able to evaluate their significance for the statehood of the independent Uzbekistan only from the perspective of future decades.

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