Lithuania

  • Human Rights Protection in Lithuania

    Author: Aleksandra Zięba
    Year of publication: 2003
    Source: Show
    Pages: 224-233
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2003015

  • Nowe otwarcie w polityce Litwy wobec Białorusi? Relacje litewsko-białoruskie po 2006 r.

    Author: Arkadiusz Czwołek
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 29-59
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016102
    PDF: npw/10/npw2016102.pdf

    In the first half of 1990s, Lithuanian–Belarusian relationships were characterised by their low intensity. This situation remained unchanged also when Alexander Lukashenko came to power in Belarus in 1994. Lithuania and Belarus followed a completely different course in their political, economic and military integration. The European and Atlantic course won in the Lithuanian politics, while in the Belarusian politics the Eastern direction prevailed. After presidential elections in 2001, bilateral relations in Belarus were frozen. Only in 2007 there was a convergence of Lithuanian and Belarusian interests, when increasing Russian influence started to pose a threat to their sovereignty. There was a new opening in Lithuanian policy towards Belarus. Political and economic cooperation tightened. An extent of Lithuanian investments in Belarus also increased. Belarus has played an increasingly important role in Lithuanian politics. Lithuania also acts as a mediator in a conflict between Belarus and EU. Both countries also criticised Russian involvement in the Ukrainian conflict. In the nearest future, further development of economic and political cooperation between these two countries should be expected.

  • The Role of Key Competences in Adult Education: The Case of Lithuania

    Author: Vidmantas Tūtlys
    Author: Genutė Gedvilienė
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 40-53
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2017.49.3.03
    PDF: tner/201703/tner20170303.pdf

    This article focuses on the analysis of the current state of the key competence development of adults in Lithuania. The following key competences are analysed: communication in native tongues and foreign languages, development of cultural awareness, entrepreneurship, application of information society technologies, and learning to learn. The research involved analysis of the definition and role of the key competences, discussing their typologies and revealing the preconditions, factors and approaches to the development of the key competences. Results of the quantitative survey involving 6992 adult respondents in Lithuania showed that the key competences are important for the majority of the research sample in their social, work and personal life. Individualised ways of key competence development are applied more frequently than collective ways. Key competence development is mostly enhanced by personal needs (work, wish of development and self-realization) and support of the family. The most frequently mentioned obstacles to the development of key competences are lack of financial resources and expensive training services.

  • A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Lithuanian and Polish Adolescents’ Conflict Styles

    Author: Gražina Čiuladienė
    Author: Danuta Borecka-Biernat
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 54-64
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2017.49.3.04
    PDF: tner/201703/tner20170304.pdf

    Based on the assumption that cultural orientations affect interpersonal conflicts, the study examined conflict styles across two national cultures of neighboring European countries, i.e. Lithuania and Poland. Whereas Poland and Lithuania score relatively high in terms of individualism, they differ in terms of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity-femininity. For the research purposes, a conflict resolving style questionnaire was applied, which was prepared by T. Wach according to the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. The questionnaire was administered to 520 participants aged 13–15. Conflict style comparisons demonstrated that the Lithuanians chose dominating and accommodating styles more often than the Polish did, and the Polish chose integrating more often than the Lithuanians. The research findings can be a valuable source in predicting conflict resolution patterns.

  • Education in Polish and a Level of Higher Education of Polish Minority in Lithuania

    Author: Jarosław Wołkonowski
    E-mail: wolkonowski@uwb.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Białystok in Vilnius
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 106-121
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2017.04.08
    PDF: kie/118/kie11808.pdf

    For centuries there has been Polish-language education in Lithuania which results from the centuries-long presence and tradition of the Polish national minority in this country. Polish education in Lithuania has its successes, but also problems that arise from the political and cultural specificity of the issue. On the one hand, it should be noted that in no other country (except Poland) there are as many state-run schools with Polish language of instruction as in Lithuania, on the other – it must be said that currently Polish-language education in Lithuania has become the source of many tensions in Poland and Lithuania inter-state relations. Polish education in Lithuania was a problem for the communist authorities of Soviet Lithuania, and now – for the authorities of independent Lithuania, which undertake both assimilation and integration activities concerning several thousand students and teachers of these schools. The first part of the article presents the situation of Polish-language education in the period of Soviet Lithuania between 1945 and 1990, marking the desperate struggle of parents and teachers to maintain the Polish language of teaching in these schools. The second chapter analyses the issue during the years of independent Lithuania – between 1990 and 2017, emphasizing the revival of Polish education in 1990–2000 and the persistent pursuit of the Polish minority society in Lithuania of ensuring education in Polish and maintain the existing state. The third chapter examines the indicator of higher education of the Polish minority in Lithuania against a national background, signifying that it was twice lower than the national average throughout the whole period. Moreover, it presents the funding of universities by ‘student basket’ model and proportion of school graduates with Polish language of instruction in this model and assesses the prospect of solving the problem.

  • «Литовские книги» на севере Центральной России в конце XVI–XVII вв. (по материалам Ярославской, Тверской областей и Пермского края)

    Author: Валерий В. Коновалов
    E-mail: gospodinbk@yandex.ru
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 179-197
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017209
    PDF: so/12/so1209.pdf

    “Lithuanian books” in the norths of Central Russia at the end of XVI–XVIIth century (used materials from Yaroslavl, Tver and Perm regions)

    This article is about appearances of Cyrillic printed “Lithuanian books” on the Yaroslavl, Tver and Perm regions. Author marked three periods of orthodox publishing activity in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth also he analyzed dynamic of this books arrival to those regions. In order to analyze this dynamic he introduced new term “books arrival intensity coefficient”.

  • Polsko-litewskie negocjacje restytucyjne w latach Trzeciej Rzeczypospolitej (1991–2018)

    Author: Dariusz Matelski
    E-mail: d.matelski1963@op.pl
    Institution: Instytut Badań Dokumentacji i Poszukiwań Dzieł Sztuki, im. prof. Karola Estreichera w Krakowie
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 56-79
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2019104
    PDF: so/15/so1504.pdf

    Polish-Lithuanian restitutive negotiations in the period of the Third Republic of Poland (1911–2018)

    Since regaining independence in 1991, Lithuanian historical documents have been kept in two archives: 1) the Lithuanian State Historical Archives (Lietuvos Valstybes Istorijos Archyvas); 2) the Lithuanian Central State Archives (Lietuvos Centrinis Valstybinis Archiv). Making them available for Polish scholars was a subject of negotiations between Polish and Lithuanian archivists. In June 11, 1993 in Białystok there was signed an agreement of cooperation between the Head Office of State Archives (Jerzy Skowronek) and the Office of the Chief Archivist of Lithuania (Stanislovas Gediminas Ilgunas). It concerned mainly information sharing about Lithuanian documents in Poland and Polish documents in Lithuania.
    1994 Treaty Between the Republic of Poland and the Republic of Lithuania on Friendly Relations and Neighbourly Cooperation signed on April 26, 1994 has regulated the issues of cultural heritage protection in its Articles XVIII and XXIII. Based on the treaty and consistently with the principle of pertinence (territorial affiliation), on October 26, 1994 there was signed Polish- Lithuanian Initiating Protocol on Exchanging Record Documents. Further talks between Director Jerzy Skowronek (1937–1996) and Stanislovas Gediminas Ilgunas (1936–2010) held in the Lithuanian Archives Department and the Lithuanian State Historical Archives resulted in agreeing on the working schedules of Polish and Lithuanian archivists.
    Moreover, queries were concluded by the Military Archival Commission which made more than 100 thousand copies of acts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania coming from 1918–1939, documents of Poles imprisoned between September 1939 and July 1940 (in Kalvarija and Birštonas), and acts of Lithuanian NKVD and KGB – kept in the Lithuanian Central State Archives and the Lithuanian Special Archives of the former KGB.
    On January 6, 1995 – independently on the agreement between Polish and Lithuanian archives – the Ambassador of Lithuania to Poland, HE Antanas Valionis (born in 1950), conveyed the copies of documents concerning 52 Poles murdered in Vilnius in 1944–1947 by NKVD to the Chief Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation.
    Polish-Lithuanian exchanging revindication that took place in 1995– –1998 led to the State Archive’s in Suwałki conveying to the Lithuanian State Historical Archives more than 70 thousand of microfilm frames with civil status books produced in 1808–1912 on the territory of middle and eastern part of the former Sejny County that was accessed to Lithuania after the I World War. Simultaneously, Lithuanians conveyed to the State Archive in Białystok also more than 70 thousand of microfilm frames made by XIX-th century record books of parish deaneries in Białystok, Knyszyn and Sokółka.
    On December 16, 1999 the governments of the Republic of Poland and the Republic of Lithuania signed a bilateral agreement on the cooperation of government plenipotentiaries in terms of cultural heritage protection that has become the pillar of joint archive studies, library conservation, securing the monuments of sacral and residential architecture, and the joint discovering and studying the common past.
    On November 28, 2006 in Warsaw there was held a summit of the Polish- Lithuanian Expert Group on the Preservation of Cultural Heritage during which both sides declared cooperation between the archives of Poland and Lithuania. Sides agreed to collect data concerning Polish documents in Lithuania and Lithuanian documents in Poland.
    Despite Lithuania keeps Polish cultural heritage appropriated in 1939– 1940 and discriminates against Polish minority, it has become an important partner in Polish Eastern politics in recent ten years.
    In Lithuania – independently on studies conducted in Poland, Belarus, Ukraine and Moscow – there are very advanced works on editing another volumes of Lithuanian Metrica which is a collection of copies of almost all documents leaving the grand-ducal office between 1440–1795. It has been published since the end of XIX-th century in the Romanov Empire in the series of the National Library of Russia. In 1993–2015 there were published 53 volumes of the Lithuanian Metrica and a series edited in Poland. Now there should be expected – despite financial problems – the edition of another 27 volumes, several of which are already ready to print. However, there are still 500 volumes of acts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that await publication. It would be a task equally magnificent to Polish Bibliography of Estreichers.
    Still, the matter of returning archives concerning the current Polish state remains unresolved. The same applies to the prewar Wróblewski Library – nationalized in 1940 by the authorities of Soviet Lithuania and transformed into the Library of the Academy of Sciences of Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (currently the Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences).

  • Restrictions of Freedom of Press as an Indicator of Neo-Militant Democracy in Lithuania

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    E-mail: kamila.rezmer@onet.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 204-210
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020412
    PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020412.pdf

    For the first time, Karl Loewenstein had used the category of militant democracy concerning the Weimar Republic. Although the world’s situation has changed, the process of political systems taking over non-democratic regimes’ characteristics is still visible. Among the indicators that can testify to becoming militant democracy, the restriction of freedom of the press is distinguished. This article attempts to analyze the dynamics of this process in Lithuania based on the Freedom House reports. The research question formulated is: What restrictions on the press’s freedom in Lithuania occurred in the period? The hypothesis is: In 2008-2019 in Lithuania, there has been a regular restriction on the freedom of the press, which may indicate a progressive process of militant democracy. Results: The hypothesis has been partially verified positively. During the period considered, there were regular restrictions on the freedom of the press but were justified mainly by circumstances, or immediate counter-action was taken.

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