• Referendum w sprawie rozwiązania parlamentu na Łotwie z 2011 roku

    Author: Andrzej Jackiewicz
    E-mail: jackiewicz@uwb.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 85-100
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.05.06
    PDF: ppk/39/ppk3906.pdf

    Of the numerous direct democracy instruments present in the Latvian Satversme, one of the most interesting solutions is the mechanism of a referendum concerning dissolution of the parliament, initiated by the head of state. A spectacular, and so far the only, example of application of this mechanism was the referendum held on 23 July 2011, as a result of which the Latvian Saeima was dissolved. The article analyzes the constitutional provisions that define this form of direct democracy, taking into account the Latvian political practice. The article focuses on the application of this institution in 2011 and emphasizes the associated social and political conditions. On the background of the Latvian constitutional and political system, in particular the mutual relations between the President of the State and the Saeima, the article presents the importance of this instrument to the Latvian political system and an evaluation of its potential with regard to the system of government.

  • Instytucja recall na Łotwie

    Author: Andrzej Jackiewicz
    E-mail: jackiewicz@uwb.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 69-82
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2018.02.04
    PDF: ppk/42/ppk4204.pdf

    The recall mechanism, like other forms of direct democracy, has raised a growing interest. In the last century, a number of states have used it, both on the central level and,especially, on the regional and local level. The group of such countries was joined in 2008 by Latvia which introduced into its legal system a unique, on the world scale, form of recall. In the article, the author defines the recall mechanism, presents countries where the mechanism exists, and classifies the types of recall. Then the author presents the proces of constitutionalization of recall in Latvia and the current constitutional and statutory provisions pertaining to that institution. Also, an attempt has been made to evaluate the potential of this institution in Latvia’s system of government.

  • Pozycja ustrojowa Ombudsmana na Łotwie

    Author: Andrzej Pogłódek
    E-mail: andrzejpoglodek@interia.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 149-162
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2015.03.07
    PDF: ppk/25/ppk2507.pdf

    The institution of Ombudsman originated in Scandinavia. The spread of the institution – which is now a solution typical of democratic countries – took place at the end of the twentieth century. At that time the institution has been widely welcome in the former socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In Latvia, it is not a constitutional body. Latvian Ombudsman acts on the basis of the Act of 2006, its predecessor was the National Bureau of Human Rights. Latvian legislator in a manner appropriate to democratic standards specify the position of Ombudsman of the political system and created him an opportunity to actually carry out the tasks assigned to it. Unfortunately, the practical effects of the activities of the Ombudsman leave much to be desired.

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