memory

  • Dealing with a Trauma Burdened Past: between Remembering and Forgetting

    Author: Joanna Kulska
    E-mail: jkulska@uni.opole.pl
    Institution: University of Opole (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 23-35
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017202
    PDF: ppsy/46-2/ppsy2017202.pdf

    Recognition that societies will not be able to build a future as long as they do not face the ‘demons of the past’ has become a kind of universal truth over the last decades of the 20th Century (Gibney et al., 2008, p. 1). This view, though challenging and ambiguous, is reflected in the globally present attempts to improve or rebuild relations within and between different communities at the domestic and international level. The question concerning, on the one hand, the essence and most essential elements and, on the other hand, the instruments and the limitations of rebuilding relations, as well as the political implications of those processes have become the broad area of interest and the discourse leading to significantly different ideas and solutions. The article aims at presenting different approaches referring to dealing with the conflicted and traumatized past both at the domestic and international level. Some selected instruments and methods which enable movement from a divided past towards a common future are discussed namely the strategy of engagement with the past versus the strategy of avoidance of the past. The special attention is paid to the notion of reconciliation understood as a process of rebuilding of relations through the multi-dimensional transformation of former adversaries after the period of violence and repression.

  • Towards micro-history – new look at the family history

    Author: Joanna Maria Garbula
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 63-72
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2015.39.1.05
    PDF: tner/201501/tner20150105.pdf

    The article is dedicated to the problems of history education in the early school years, a question which until now has been almost neglected in literature. Studies on constructing the historical senses of primary school pupils can help, if only partially, to fill in this gap. Two aspects are discussed: historical senses constructed in the context of educational situations (focusing on the content, developed around the teacher, concentrated on pupils’ knowledge) and historical senses constructed by pupils via narration. By analyzing the research material, the author was able to distinguish the subjective senses and meanings which pupils participating in the study assigned to spheres of private life and to spheres which are manifestations of grand history in private stories.

  • Hidden Memory and Memorials The Monument in Memory of the Korean Victims of the Atomic Bomb and the Remembrance of Korean Victims

    Author: Olga Barbasiewicz
    Institution: Jagiellonian University in Kraków
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 289-303
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019206
    PDF: ppsy/48-2/ppsy2019206.pdf

    During World War II, Americans dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Due to this atrocity, around 140,000 human beings lost their lives. Almost 20% of them were Koreans. It resulted in the sudden capitulation of Japan and caused the so called higaisha ishiki (awareness of being a victim) among Japanese society. Unfortunately, the question of Korean atomic blast victims has been forgotten and the Monument raised in Memory of the Korean Victims of the Atomic Bomb was placed in the peripheries of the Park. The aim of this paper is to analyze Hiroshima Memorial Park monuments, as locations that serve as political tools, with special emphasis on the issue of the Monument in Memory of Korean Victims of the A-bomb, which characterizes Japanese politics of remembrance towards Korea.

  • Corpo-grafie di donna: un matri-archivio del corpo danzante, pensante, migrante

    Author: Annalisa Piccirillo
    E-mail: annalisa.piccirillo@libero.it
    Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8381-9932
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 307-322
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/IW.2019.10.1.31
    PDF: iw/10_2/iw10218.pdf

    FEMALE CORPO-GRAPHIES: A MATRI-ARCHIVE OF THE DANCING, THINKING, MIGRANT BODY

    Ballet is the language that is most representative of dance culture in Italy, with its famous male librettists and choreographers, the archons of its knowledge. This academic tradition is closely connected to the aesthetic representation of the ethereal image of the female body - and the way she must be, without “weight”. By proposing a “matri-archival” methodology, this paper aims to interrogate the roles and the values that have been “choreographed” into the representation of women inside and beyond the Italian theatre-dance scene. The purpose is to discuss the choreographic experimentations where, instead, women dance and make dance themselves through their bodywriting - here proposed as corpo-graphy. I select, in the form of fragments, practices of art of the lives of women and pioneers of western Dance History in order to trace the principles of “repetition and destruction” - which are always at play in every archiving act (Derrida, 1996) - of a specific force and quality of movement: “gravity”. Conceptually and metaphorically, “gravity” is conceived here as both the “weight” of the body and of the choreographic “thinking” that supports it. Following this way of thinking, I recall fragments of dance, theatre-dance, and video-dance, briefly referring to the corporeal stories of women and archons who rewrote the representative memory of the ethereal body transmitted through ballet women who embody, dance, and think the research of a political and poetical protest. I conclude with an example of female corpo-graphy that hosts, on and with a woman’s own corporeality, the experience of contemporary migration.

  • Przeszłość, pamięć, wojna: powracające spojrzenia

    Author: Piotr Zwierzchowski
    E-mail: piotr.zwierzchowski@ukw.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1770-777X
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 112-123
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2019.03.08
    PDF: kie/125/kie12508.pdf

    W niniejszym tekście porównuję kilka filmów z lat 60. oraz przełomu pierwszej i drugiej dekady XXI wieku: Jak być kochaną (1962) Wojciecha Jerzego Hasa i Joannę (2010) Feliksa Falka, Echa (1964) Stanisława Różewicza i Kreta (2010) Rafaela Lewandowskiego oraz Na melinę (1965) Różewicza i Obławę (2012) Marcina Krzyształowicza. Filmy te równie wiele dzieli, jak łączy. Niemniej jednak podobieństwa wydają się zbyt istotne, by przejść obok nich obojętnie. Nie tyle wojna czy lustracja są ich tematem, ile ludzie postawieni w niecodziennej sytuacji, ich wybory, postawy, dylematy, ale i miłości. W każdym razie w żadnym z nich wojna nie jest powodem do dumy czy chwały, niezależnie od tego, czy kończy się zwycięstwem, czy staje się przyczyną heroicznych zmagań i cierpień. Mimo upływu lat i różnych kontekstów dostrzegam w nich te same problemy, postawy, dyskurs wartości, rozwiązania ideowe i dramaturgiczne, ale też odrębność wobec dominujących wizerunków pamięci, przeszłości i wojny. Dzięki temu mogę zadać pytanie o status relacji między dawnym i nowym polskim kinem, skupić się na sensie pewnych prawidłowości bądź znaczeniu powtórzeń. Wszystkie te filmy łączy nieoczywistość, brak wiary w jednoznaczne odpowiedzi, używając pewnego uogólnienia - przełamanie stereotypów funkcjonujących w polskim myśleniu o przeszłości, pamięci i wojnie. Powrót do tych samych tematów, sposobów ujęcia, wątpliwości, porządku aksjologicznego nie oznacza prostej kontynuacji czy nawiązań, mających podkreślić odwołanie do klasyki polskiego kina. Nowe filmy stanowią raczej dowód na to, że kolejni twórcy poszukują odpowiedzi na uniwersalne pytania. Nie pozwalają kulturze zamknąć się w gotowych schematach.

  • Memory and Politics of Memory in Terms of the Memes Theory. With Reference to an Example of the Idea of Polish Heroism

    Author: Anna Ratke-Majewska
    E-mail: anna.ratkemajewska@gmail.com
    Institution: University of Zielona Góra (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0845-5061
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 101-111
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020108
    PDF: ppsy/49-1/ppsy2020108.pdf

    The purpose of the article is to verify the hypothesis that the idea of Polish heroism constitutes an effectively duplicating and spreading meme, and stories of the past constructed in the framework of Polish politics of memory will be effective precisely when they refer to memes duplicated most often in the community. The article proves therefore that the Polish state politics of memory should be shaped on the basis of memes that replicate the most in Polish society, because only then does it have a chance to achieve its goals. What is more, this principle can also be applied to other countries that pursue a politics of memory. It was possible to obtain answers to the research questions raised in the text (in order to verify the hypotheses) due to the use of mutually complementary research methods: analysis of narrative structures and content analysis. The article presents the results of the author’s own research with comments and conclusions.

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