methodology

  • O istniejących i nieistniejących referentach nazwy własnej – antropocentryzm w onomastyce

    Author: Arkadiusz Matachowski
    Institution: Uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 155-170
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpom2018210
    PDF: tpom/28/tpom2810.pdf

    About existing and not existing referents of proper names – anthropocentrism in onomastics

    In the article the author widely covers the problem of names’ reference, especially proper names. The phenomenon of reference is discussed on the basis of Ogden/Richards triangle, showing the tri-elemental relation between the symbol, the concept and the referent. The author is pointing out the practice of inaccurate use of terms in the scientific discourse of research into reference and he sorts it out in the terminology by showing the difference between, among others, the reference, the designation and the denotation. The author’s considerations are full of examples which illustrate the essence of these terms and their relations. From the conclusion about the symbol and the concept he moves to the description of reality whose elements are the nominated objects. The extra-linguistic reality in which objects – capable of becoming the referents of various expressions – occur is described in accord with Kantian anthropocentric philosophical thought.

  • Geneza, założenia programowe i działalność Ruchu Pierestrojki w amerykańskiej nauce o polityce

    Author: Zbigniew Kantyka
    Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 98-116
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2015.47.06
    PDF: apsp/47/apsp4706.pdf

    ORIGINS, CURRICULUM ASSUMPTIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE PERESTROIKA MOVEMENT IN AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE

    Model of methodological and theoretical pluralism, developed after the behavioral revolution, allows different methods and purposes of approach in research of political spheres of social life. For many years, it seemed that the current consensus is not threatened, that the acceptance of the status quo is widespread. As it turned out, however, post-behavioral order and peace were hiding under the surface of old conflicts and contradictions, and generated new ones. Somewhat like 100 years ago, at the beginning of the new century, they flowed on the surface – colliding with each other – as completely different visions of policy research, based on a different meaning of objectivity and truth and the role that the gained knowledge plays in the society.
    In October 2000, to a dozen American political scientists and publishers of professional magazines there was sent an e-mail, signed “Mr. Perestroika”, containing harsh criticism of the system of forces existing in the American political science, under which there is a strong dominance of representatives of science-oriented mathematical modeling and quantitative methods, and representatives of other approaches are being discriminated against. This letter, commonly called the “Perestroika Manifesto”, has rapidly spread in the network, gaining a few hundred followers within a few weeks. It became the nucleus of an informal Perestroika Movement, which brought together a larger group of political scientists dissatisfied with the current model of discipline.
    They performed against the domination of investigator-driven assumptions of logical positivism and radical behaviorism, based on the assumption that it is possible to predict the political behavior on the basis of the theories of rationality. They also questioned focusing on discovering universal, independent of context, truths about politics, based on testing causal hypotheses with regard to the behavior of political actors and the quest to build a general theory. Th is results in their opinion that there is the marginalization of other studies aimed at clarifying and resolving specifi c issues and, on the other hand, the need of search for a more explicit link between theory and practice.
    Supporters of the Perestroika Movement do not reject entirely quantitative methods, only tend to criticize their absolutizing character, involving the complete discrediting of approaches which are not referring to the quantifi cation of data or treating this type of treatment only as a complementary knowledge considerations based on normative narrative. Th erefore, they generally tend to the concept of methodological triangulation, in which quantitative techniques may complement and partially be a form of verifi cation of qualitative methods in various research issues, of course, if you can combine both types of approaches.
    Th ey are clearly in favor of the primacy of the essence of research method. From this point of view, based on compliance with the applicable rules of methodological research, they do not have to be in this respect particularly innovative, hyper-precise or mathematicised. Th ey should, however, contain a well-constructed argumentation, allowing reliably resolve important issues. Th e result should be to restore compounds research and theoretical knowledge with the real problems of political life, moving away from the extreme containment and academic character towards the relationship of knowledge about politics of social practice.

  • Methodological Bases of Research of Essence of a Category »Administrative Act«

    Author: Olena Milienko
    Institution: Zaporizhia National University
    ORCID: https:// orcid.org/0000-0002-3364-1774
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 35-44
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20200403
    PDF: ksm/28/ksm2803.pdf

    The purpose of the work is to establish the methodological foundations of the study of the essence of the category «administrative act». In the course of the research it was established that the methodological component is a set of research methods by which science achieves its fundamental goal - the acquisition and formation of new knowledge about the studied phenomena and processes. It is emphasized that the arsenal of scientific methods used in administrative law is extremely wide and includes both empirical methods - measure ment, observation, comparison - and purely theoretical. It was found that the administrative act, being the main form of activity of public authorities, is the basic, central concept of the science of administrative law; which is correlated with many other administrative and legal categories (administrative procedure, public-power relations, etc.). Based on the presence of polysemantic research links of the studied category with other administrative and legal institutions, the difficulty of choosing the appropriate methodological basis is emphasized, which requires a comprehensive approach to the choice of scientific tools of various theoretical constructions. Taking into account the established tradition in administrative and legal research, the expediency of using a three-level methodological model of scientific knowledge of the essence of the concept of administrative act, consisting of philosophical, general and special legal levels. It is concluded that the high heuristic potential of dialectical and systemic approaches is characterized by the possibility of considering the system of administrative law, which is an administrative act, on several levels: as a subsystem of society, as a component of modern law, as a separate system. It is emphasized that depending on the objectives of the study, their refinement and specification in the course of analytical work, the optics of the system approach can be changed, relatively speaking, by scaling the individual elements of the system as objects of study.

  • Refleksje nad badaniami myśli politycznej w Polsce z uwzględnieniem tendencji w wybranych krajach anglosaskich. Od delimitacji pojęć do aspektów metodologicznych

    Author: Grzegorz Radomski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    Author: Patryk Tomaszewski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 35-57
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.69.03
    PDF: apsp/69/apsp6903.pdf

    Autorzy ukazują obszary badań z zakresu myśli politycznej analizowane przez polskich naukowców. Szukają przy tym odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy polskie badania nad myślą polityczną odbiegają od trendów prezentowanych w krajach anglosaskich. Artykuł ukazuje różnorakie spojrzenia na samą definicję myśli politycznej i kategorii pokrewnych, jak doktryna czy też ideologia. Analizując różne ujęcia badań nad myślą polityczną w Polsce, autorzy starają się odpowiedzieć na pytanie, czy możliwe jest uporządkowanie metod i technik badawczych na tyle, aby stanowiły uniwersalny model, którym mogą się posługiwać badacze. W polskim dyskursie naukowym w ostatnich latach mocno zaznacza się potrzebę wypracowania takich metod w obszarze nauk społecznych, które pozwolą unikać interpretacjonizmu. W artykule przyjrzano się wybranej i ograniczonej liczbie publikacji z obszaru badań nad myślą polityczną i ideologią w krajach anglosaskich, aby porównać, z jakimi problemami badawczymi mierzą się naukowcy w Wielkiej Brytanii czy też w USA. Autorzy zaprezentowali własną propozycję konceptualizacji w ujęciu linearnym etapów myślenia politycznego. W podsumowaniu stwierdzili, że odnosząc się do treści artykułów naukowych, można dostrzec podobieństwo analizowanych problemów zarówno w Polsce, jak i w krajach anglosaskich. Skonkludowali, że nie istnieje uniwersalny model badań myśli politycznej. Zdaniem autorów w Polsce nadal będzie się toczyła dyskusja na temat przedmiotu zainteresowania myśli politycznej, a także będą trwały poszukiwania definicji odróżniającej myśl polityczną od ideologii i doktryny politycznej.

  • Użyteczność badawcza struktur sieciowych w nauce o stosunkach międzynarodowych

    Author: Wojciech Stachyra
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 159-174
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.70.10
    PDF: apsp/70/apsp7010.pdf

    Artykuł zawiera argumentację na rzecz wykorzystania w nauce o stosunkach międzynarodowych metod badawczych opartych na analizie struktur sieciowych. Wychodząc od ogólnej definicji sieci jako struktury złożonej z połączonych relacjami elementów, ukazuje jej odpowiedniość do opisu procesów i zjawisk o charakterze transgranicznym. Idąc dalej, rozważa komplementarność sieci w stosunku do kategorii badawczej systemu międzynarodowego i metody analizy systemowej, która przedstawia się jako szczególny przypadek szerszej klasy sieciowych metod badawczych. Analiza dotychczasowych, udanych prób adaptacji w naukach społecznych matematycznej teorii grafów, pozwala na zaproponowanie ogólnego modelu analizy sieciowej, który może okazać się użyteczny przy badaniu stosunków międzynarodowych.

  • Man as a subject of cognition in the perspective of pedagogical anthropology - Georgy Shchedrovitsky’s anthropological ideas and searches

    Author: Andrei Harbatski
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5098-0949
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 91-102
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2021.02.05
    PDF: em/15/em1505.pdf

    Aktualnie antropologia pedagogiczna staje się integralną dyscypliną w procesie edukacyjnym. Człowiek jest badany z punktu widzenia historii i kultury, w okresie przemian politycznych i ekonomicznych oraz na każdym poziomie rozwoju społecznego. Współczesny świat jest niezwykle różnorodny i niejednoznaczny. Narastają nierówności społeczne na wszystkich poziomach, rośnie liczba ubogich, pojawiły się nowe światowe problemy migracji i uchodźców. Zobowiązuje to również antropologię pedagogiczną, aby pomagała pedagogom w szybkim i skutecznym rozwiązywaniu palących problemów związanych z edukacją i wychowaniem. Artykuł pokazuje, jak prace naukowe rosyjskiego filozofa Jerzego Szczedrowickiego mogą pomóc współczesnej antropologii pedagogicznej. Podano ogólną ocenę wkładu J. Szczedrowickiego w rozwój antropologii pedagogicznej i zwrócono uwagę na aktualność praktyk naukowych naukowca, które nie straciły aktualnie na znaczeniu i mogą być wykorzystywane zarówno w pedagogice, antropologii pedagogicznej, jak i edukacji międzykulturowej.

  • Sztuka i nauka formułowania pytań w badaniach ilościowych . Nowa rzeczywistość, nowe wyzwania

    Author: Daniel Dariusz Mider
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2223-5997
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 243-258
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2021.03.14
    PDF: kie/133/kie13314.pdf

    Art and science of creating a questionnaires in quantitative research. New reality and new challenges

    The text enriches the theoretical reflection on the standardization of measurement tools in the methodology of social sciences. The need for this text is also, to some extent, didactic and organizing the reflection so far. This article presents the original concept of analyzing questionnaire questions on three following levels: content-related, logical, and psychological. The substantive / content-related level refers to the division according to the way of construction - structure, format - questions and/or answers. On the other hand, the logical plane is a division according to the functions given questions or groups of questions fulfilled in a broader context, i.e. concerning the whole questionnaire. The psychological plane was distinguished due to the intended or unintended but unavoidable emotional reactions evoked by the respondent). In the last part of the text, a reflection on the most common errors in research tools is presented and recommendations for avoiding them are formulated.

  • Metodologiczne aspekty zasady komplementarności

    Author: Barbara Ciżkowicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 115-128
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2015.01.06
    PDF: kie/107/kie10706.pdf

    The development of quantum physics and formulation of complementarity and uncertainty principles gave rise to numerous interpretational problems. For the first time microworld laws were formulated in probabilistic rather than deterministic language. In the philosophy of nature there was a need for revision of views on realism, determinism, reductionism and the role of the observer in the conduct of research. However the question whether the perceived boundaries of knowledge are the result of the nature essence or of actual cognitive abilities remains open. In the social sciences, after years of dispute about the research methodology, the need for a complementary use of quantitative and qualitative approaches has been accepted. Qualitative researchers, however, continue to criticize legitimacy of quantitative research. At the same time the assumptions of qualitative approach build on neo-positivist interpretation already outdated in the light of naturalists new discoveries. The article aims to demonstrate that the changes that have taken place in the theory of knowledge as a result of naturalists discoveries lead to convergence between the two research approaches. Taking into account these changes will end the polemic with assumptions already outdated in the natural sciences.

  • Systemic Geopolitical Analysis in the research of power distribution in Eastern Europe

    Author: Erwin Metera
    Institution: Political Science Alumni Association of the University of Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9003-5810
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 9-20
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223301
    PDF: npw/33/npw3301.pdf

    Systemic Geopolitical Analysis in the research of power distribution in Eastern Europe

    The article presents Systemic Geopolitical Analysis, which as a scientific method can be an important tool for studying the distribution of power in Eastern Europe, supporting the assumptions of structural realism with an element of quantitative research. This region, as a place where spheres of influence and the ensuing economic and potentially military conflicts meet, is an area where the knowledge of the most precise distribution of power may be a crucial element in the analysis of the genesis of conflicts, the shifts in power distribution during their course, as well as in the prediction of future flashpoints. Being the first attempt to correlate Systemic Geopolitical Analysis with the issue of conflicts in Eastern Europe, the paper contains a hypothesis that Systemic Geopolitical Analysis is a research method that enables an effective analysis of the geopolitical reality in the region because of: 1) the conflicts occurring in the system due to differences in power distribution; 2) the nature of the components of power, measurable by the means of Systemic Geopolitical Analysis. Confirming the above hypothesis, the article points to the economic aspect, linked to the Russian natural gas exports, and the military aspect, by taking into account the characteristics of contemporary tensions in the region, which reduce the role of supra-systemic reserves.

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