• The Growing Role of Cities and Their Networks in the International Relations and International Security

    Author: Agnieszka Szpak
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 54–77
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.52.03
    PDF: apsp/52/apsp5203.pdf

    The author analyses the manifestations of cities’ growing role for ensuring the national/international as well as environmental and human security. Cities of today increasingly participate in international relations – they internalize, implement and enforce international law, sometimes independently of their States’ international legal obligations, for example when they pledge to implement human rights conventions or environmental law obligations that their own States did not pledge to fulfill. In this way they contribute to international peace and security. On the basis of those manifestations, the author attempts to explain the possible position of cities on the international plane and according to international law – whether they should be accorded greater autonomy or international legal personality. The author also indicates that the role of cities in the area of different aspects of security is growing.

  • Consequences of the Schmalkaldic War (1546–1547) for the modification of the tax system in the 16th century Kingdom of Bohemia

    Author: Petr Vorel
    E-mail: Petr.Vorel@upce.cz
    Institution: Ústav historických věd Fakulty filozofické Univerzity Pardubice
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 46-63
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso180303
    PDF: hso/18/hso1803.pdf

    The article deals with the consequences of a political agreement between King Ferdinand I and a part of the Bohemian opposition nobility, concluded in 1547 in order to restore stability following the Schmalkaldic War (1546–1547). The change in the tax system put Bohemian royal cities and owners of large estates at a considerable disadvantage while profits from manor farming and financial services remained virtually untaxed. This tax structure, applied for several decades, resulted in a rapid increase of debts and the ultimate collapse of the entire tax system in 1615. The resulting financial crisis was resolved by the Bohemian Landtag in 1615 by declaring bankruptcy of the treasury and taking over tax collection.

  • The Evolution of the European Union Urban Agenda: A Hard Path Towards a City-Oriented Policy?

    Author: Liliia Hrytsai
    Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 21-35
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.67.02
    PDF: apsp/67/apsp6702.pdf

    During the last decades, alongside the growing role of cities, the process of urbanization has been receiving more and more attention from the European policy-makers. This study analyzes the evolution of the EU urban agenda establishment since 1970s till the present times. In the first part, the paper presents five stages, most important milestones and core programs regarding the urbanization process in Europe. In the second section, the author pays a special attention to the Urban Agenda for the EU (the Pact of Amsterdam) as one of the key documents promoting the sound cooperation among the European urban policy stakeholders. In the final part, the paper provides the evaluation of the EU urban agenda’s genesis by indicating the main features of this process.

  • Zagadnienie organizacji państwa i społeczeństwa polskiego w epoce piastowskiej w dorobku naukowym Aleksandra Gieysztora oraz Gerarda Labudy

    Author: Zbyszko Górczak
    E-mail: zbyszkog@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9258-145X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 116-130
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso210305
    PDF: hso/30/hso3005.pdf

    The main theses of the authors concerned the mutual relation between social changes and the formation of state organisation, the militarisation of the Early Piast State (G. Labuda) and the question of the native, pre-foundation beginnings of urban life in Poland. In their research, A. Gieysztor and G. Labuda often used the methods of retrogression and comparison; in addition, G. Labuda appreciated the importance of archaeological findings.

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