militant democracy

  • Conceptualizing the Theoretical Category of Neo-militant Democracy: The Case of Hungary

    Author: Joanna Rak
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0505-3684
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 61-70
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020204
    PDF: ppsy/49-2/ppsy2020204.pdf

    The article aims to formulate a theoretical category of neo-militant democracy that applies to study the nature and dynamics of democratic regimes after the 2008 economic crisis. It conducts an empirical test to verify the analytical effectiveness of the redeveloped category. The test takes a form of the case study of the Hungarian political system. Apart from a verification-objective, the research aims to identify and account for the dynamics of the Hungarian regime in terms of the neo-militant democracy principle. The qualitative method of source analysis serves to collect data on the processes of becoming neo-militant democracy. The selection of sources is deliberate and oriented on finding information about the implementation of neo-militant democracy measures in Hungary (2008-2019). The technique of qualitative content analysis applies to identify the nature of these processes. The theoretical tool is the category of neo-militant democracy, which simultaneously undergoes the empirical test. The main argument is that the process of becoming neo-militant democracy took a traditional form since the Hungarian neo-militant democracy principle drew on the traditional means introduced by Loewenstein rather than innovations advanced by the current research

  • Possibility of Implementing the Concept of the Intermarium in the Context of Militant Democracy in Poland During and After the Coronavirus Pandemic

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 96-110
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020306
    PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020306.pdf

    Intermarium is one of the most important Polish geopolitical concepts. This article considers it within the category of militant democracy. It allows to explore the process of militant democracy, that is, introducing restrictions by legal means. Most restrictions have recently been introduced due to a coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, the article undertakes to examine the potential for implementation of the concept of the Intermarium during the pandemic and shortly after its end. The study uses a qualitative analysis of sources. Indicators relevant to the study of the process of militant democracy were distinguished based on the body of literature. Results: The traditional concept of the Intermarium erodes due to natural causes. Currently, Poland is more inclined to the concept of the Three Seas. In addition, in the face of the analysis that was carried out, it seems that in a pandemic situation we are observing the end of the paradigm of liberal democracy in this case.

  • Restrictions of Freedom of Press as an Indicator of Neo-Militant Democracy in Lithuania

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 204-210
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020412
    PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020412.pdf

    For the first time, Karl Loewenstein had used the category of militant democracy concerning the Weimar Republic. Although the world’s situation has changed, the process of political systems taking over non-democratic regimes’ characteristics is still visible. Among the indicators that can testify to becoming militant democracy, the restriction of freedom of the press is distinguished. This article attempts to analyze the dynamics of this process in Lithuania based on the Freedom House reports. The research question formulated is: What restrictions on the press’s freedom in Lithuania occurred in the period? The hypothesis is: In 2008-2019 in Lithuania, there has been a regular restriction on the freedom of the press, which may indicate a progressive process of militant democracy. Results: The hypothesis has been partially verified positively. During the period considered, there were regular restrictions on the freedom of the press but were justified mainly by circumstances, or immediate counter-action was taken.

  • The Effects of Crises in the European Union as a Manifestation of the Militant Democracy Rule Implementation

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 615-621
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.50
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5850.pdf

    In the history of the European Union, there are three main crises: financial crisis, the so-called refugee crisis, and the recent coronavirus pandemic. Since the financial crisis, the process of modern democracies taking over the characteristics of non-democratic regimes has become noticeable, and subsequent crises are only exacerbating it. A useful theoretical category for explaining this phenomenon is the category of militant democracy, which was first used by Karl Loewenstein, who applied it to the Weimar Republic. The article aims to present in general how successive crises have contributed to accelerating the militant process by the EU Member States.

  • Konstytucyjne ograniczenie politycznego pluralizmu i koncepcja militant democracy. Rozważania na przykładzie procesu świętojurskiego (1922/1923)

    Author: Marcin Niemczyk
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8095-3239
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 441-457
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.35
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6335.pdf

    Constitutional limitation of political plurality and the concept of militant democracy. Deliberations based on the example of the East Galicia Communist Party trial (1922/1923)

    The concept of political plurality limitation specified in Article 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997 constitutes a manifestation of the militant democracy concept implementation. The purpose of the paper is to verify the hypothesis stating that the East Galicia Communist Party trial that took place in 1922/23 can be treated as historical experience that was conceptually an element of development of the militant democracy theory and thus also of the concept of political pluralism limitation. These notions have all the features of universality, because despite there being no doubt that a democratic system should have effective militant measures, the answer to the questions on the scope of these measures and their effectiveness remains open. Furthermore, the ever-changing political, legal and social reality permanently coerces such deliberations, in order to prevent, paradoxically and for its own good, democracy from unintendedly and inconspicuously transforming into an autocratic system.

  • What Factors Determine and Facilitate a Departure from a Neo-Militant Democracy? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 269-280
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.21
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6421.pdf

    Bulgaria is a partially consolidated democracy. Between the financial crisis of 2008 and the coronavirus pandemic, it began to take on characteristics of authoritarian regimes. However, its case is not a classically understood militant democracy, but quasi-militant democracy. This article aims to present main changes the Bulgarian system faced in 2008– 2019 and its transition from neo-consolidated democracy to quasi-militant democracy. The research questions are: is Bulgaria still a neo-militant democracy? If not, what factors determine and facilitate a departure from a neo-militant democracy?

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