Constitutional limitation of political plurality and the concept of militant democracy. Deliberations based on the example of the East Galicia Communist Party trial (1922/1923)
The concept of political plurality limitation specified in Article 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997 constitutes a manifestation of the militant democracy concept implementation. The purpose of the paper is to verify the hypothesis stating that the East Galicia Communist Party trial that took place in 1922/23 can be treated as historical experience that was conceptually an element of development of the militant democracy theory and thus also of the concept of political pluralism limitation. These notions have all the features of universality, because despite there being no doubt that a democratic system should have effective militant measures, the answer to the questions on the scope of these measures and their effectiveness remains open. Furthermore, the ever-changing political, legal and social reality permanently coerces such deliberations, in order to prevent, paradoxically and for its own good, democracy from unintendedly and inconspicuously transforming into an autocratic system.