• Partnerstwo NATO–Szwecja

    Author: mgr Bartosz Szczepaniak
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 258-275
    DOI Address:
    PDF: siip/16/siip1613.pdf

    EN Title

    Article characterizes relations between most powerful military pact – Northern Atlantic Pact and neutral state – Sweden. In this article is analyzing cooperation on military ground, non-military ground and it is also analyzing aspects of cooperation involving neutral status of Sweden, Crimea annexation and growing danger from Russia. Studies connected to main theme of article were based on official documents od NATO, press notes or official releases. Main reason of article is to answer on question if neutral state can cooperate with NATO and can we say that between NATO and Sweden exists partnership relation. Except of above issues, in this article I will try to define neutrality, neutral policy and partnership. After made analysis of available documents, emphatically we can agree that partnership between NATO and Sweden exists.

  • Interculturalism in Crisis Response Operations

    Author: Magdalena El Ghamari
    Institution: Collegium Civitas
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 284-310
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/56/apsp5618.pdf

    Deriving from the very concept, colere (culture) should indicate a significant, and at the same time, the main factor which is a human society. Culture exists in close proximity to people and their activities. Subsequently, through participation in a particular social group, everyone may create a system which is called culture. The foregoing interaction highlights the impact of culture on human behaviour and the people’s ability to model and create “the foundations of culture”. Culture forms the human individuality, which over time improves and enriches it, or on the contrary – affects its gradual loss. This means that man exists due to culture – and culture positively coexists or negatively disappears through human actions.
    Dynamic trends in the civilizational development of countries, changes in the environment, progress in science, engineering and technology, and in particular information lead to the appearing of new socio-cultural tools for new policy scenarios of military security.
    The constant dynamism of these phenomena requires, from our currently formed Armed Forces, mainly bearing the burden of maintaining military security, but also new, unconventional and at the same time resolute response, even to minor regional conflicts which incidentally may become dangerous for Poland over time. Responding to emerging threats will not be unilateral or brief, as the experiences in the former Yugoslavia and in the Middle East indicate.
    For a long time, the security of the states was based on military force. Force and sovereignty were the cornerstones of the system of national states. The rest of the military structure was subordinated to the remaining components of the state, e.g., natural resources, geographic location, demographic potential, scientific and technological advancement, etc. Over time, this condition has changed. After the Second World War, two alliances of states centered around the empires of powerful military forces were formed. The rise of military potentials on both sides did not cause the necessity to their use. These potentials have become a great means of deterrence and political influence on their opponents.

  • Instytucjonalny, społeczny i polityczny wymiar pretorianizmu tureckiego

    Author: Maciej Herbut
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 20-34
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/46/apsp4602.pdf


    The term ‘praetorianism’ refers to countries in which the armed forces influence the political system. The army, as an institution, can develop its political power in two ways: in a “direct” and “indirect” fashion. While in the first case the armed forces take control over state institutions, the second is more sublime and is restricted to the building of more concealed methods of influence, such as blackmail. Additionally, the army itself, as the officers are not engaged into politics, shows a high level of political cohesion and military professionalism. Turkey is an example of a country in which a professional army, after decades of acquiring political experience and under favourable conditions, was and still is able to efficiently exert backstage politics. On one side, TSK (Turkish Armed Forces) has developed constitutional and legal means of influencing the government, and on the other, the high public trust in the armed forces allows it to, if necessary, effectively blackmail or even supplant disobedient cabinets.

  • Wojskowi i polityka w Ameryce Łacińskiej na przełomie XX i XXI wieku

    Author: Michał Stelmach
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 194-206
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/61/apsp6111.pdf

    Celem artykułu jest analiza nowych form militaryzmu i politycznej aktywności wojskowych w państwach Ameryki Łacińskiej na przełomie XX i XXI wieku. Poddaję analizie trzy wybrane formy udziału wojskowych w polityce. Rozpoczynam od uwag na temat interwencjonizmu wojskowego. Następnie skupiam się na fenomenie wojskowego prezydencjalizmu, czyli udziału w wyborach prezydenckich i pełnienia funkcji konstytucyjnych prezydentów przez byłych wojskowych, którzy w przeszłości łamali porządek konstytucyjny, inspirując i/lub przeprowadzając zamachy stanu lub sprawując dyktatorską władzę, a także łamali prawa człowieka w okresie dyktatur i wewnętrznych konfliktów zbrojnych. W dalszej kolejności badam problem militaryzacji partii politycznych, wskazując na zaangażowanie byłych wojskowych w tworzenie nowych partii politycznych reprezentujących interesy środowiska lub też zasilanie przez byłych wojskowych już istniejących partii politycznych.

  • Some Methodological Reflections on the Efficiency of “Political and Military Decision Making” in a Hybrid Reality

    Author: Benon Zbigniew Szałek
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 134-148
    DOI Address:
    PDF: rop/2019/rop201909.pdf

    The aim of this paper is to present some methodological reflections on hybrid activities (spaces, knowledge about spaces, comparison of spaces, dynamic spaces, coordination of hybrid activities, efficiency of “hybrid activities”).

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