The paper presents the genesis and evolution of the minister in the Polish political system from the fourteenth century to the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland in 1997. Based on the literature study, the following issues have been presented: the origins of the institution of the minister of Poland, the rules of the ministerial offices appointment, competences and responsibilities of minister and the defining of its governmental position as independent officer and member of the collective body. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the institution of the minister, since the founding of this institution in the Constitution of May 3 to the solutions adopted on the basis of the Small Constitution of 1992, has the following characteristics in common: • the executive nature (minister always belonged to the executive authority), • the national range, • dual governmental role in the political system, i.e. as a single body specialized in a particular category of cases, as well as a member of a collegial body, • the political and constitutional responsibility. The study is based on an analysis of publications in the field of constitutional law and regulations contained in the various constitutions of the Republic of Poland, as well as ordinary legislation referring to the institution of the minister. The work has been complemented with an analysis of political practice in the field of the institution of minister development throughout history of the Republic of Poland.