minority rights

  • The Protection of the Right to Education in Minority Language: the Council of Europe’s Standards

    Author: Hanna Wiczanowska
    E-mail: hanna.wiczanowska@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University
    Author: Łukasz Szoszkiewicz
    E-mail: l.szoszkiewicz@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 742-751
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018411
    PDF: ppsy/47-4/ppsy2018411.pdf

    There is neither consensus whether the category of linguistic rights shall be distinguished, nor international agreement on the catalogue of such rights. Nevertheless, access to education in mother tongue constitutes a core element of most of the international and national frameworks of minority protection. Academic and legal disputes are particularly absorbing in Europe, where linguistic policies frequently intertwine with politics (e.g. Cyprus, Moldova, Ukraine). Thus, it is essential to pose the question, whether the right to education in mother tongue is always granted the equal scope of protection or is such protection differentiated by any additional criteria. Most of all, it shall be considered whether the analyzed right has an independent character or its protection is associated with perception of other fundamental rights and freedoms. This paper investigates the scope of the protection of this right within the framework of the Council of Europe.

  • The Citizenship Policies of the Baltic States within the EU Framework on Minority Rights

    Author: Cristina Carpinelli
    Institution: Committee Scientific Member of International Problems Study Centre
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 193-221
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019201
    PDF: ppsy/48-2/ppsy2019201.pdf

    The ethnic landscape in the Baltic States is dominated by one large ethnic minority: Russians. Lithuania is an exception as here the first biggest ethnic minority are Poles, followed by Russians. The Baltic States have also significant Slavic minorities, such as Belarusians and Ukrainians. There are many barriers for people from different ethnic groups to overcome because the Baltic societies are segregated according to ethnicity across a number of dimensions: language, work and geography. During the Soviet period there were separate language schools, a system that reinforced ethnic separation. Labor market was also split along ethnic lines and a large proportion of ethnic minorities lived spatially segregated from the majority group and was concentrated mostly in urban centers. The impact of communist heritage and the construction of the post-communist state order had a negative impact on the integration process of the Russian minorities in those countries. The ethnic Russians had been heavily marginalized as many of them had no citizenship at all. As a result, they had limited access to labor-market and less social protection. However, the accession of the Baltic States to the European Union (EU) has succeeded in significantly changing policies with respect for and protection of minorities in the three Baltic countries. In the last years the ethnic Russians have in fact been partially accommodated through the consistency of the citizenship laws with the European Union norms, which precisely require the protection of minorities and respect for them. The aim of the study described herein is to investigate the historic roots of ethnic segregation between the native Baltic population and the Russian minority and show how the entry of the Baltic States into the EU has facilitated the process of promoting minority rights, especially from the perspective of granting citizenship right to Russian (and Polish) ethnic persons living in those countries.

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