• Geneza republikańskiej głowy państwa w Polsce

    Author: Ryszard Balicki
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-22
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/33/ppk3301.pdf

    Artykuł przedstawia genezę republikańskiej głowy państwa w Polsce po I wojnie światowej (do uchwalenia Konstytucji marcowej). Był to szczególnie istotny moment, w którym dokonał się wybór formy ustrojowej odbudowywanego państwa polskiego. Autor zwraca uwagę na istotny związek dziejących się w czasie I wojny światowej wydarzeń historycznych, w tym zwłaszcza zmian ustrojowych zachodzących w państwach zaborczych na decyzję o wyborze republikańskiej drogi ustrojowej.

  • Grody jako instytucje władzy w monarchii wczesnopiastowskiej (w źródłach pisanych)

    Author: Franciszek Dąbrowski
    Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 122-155
    DOI Address:
    PDF: hso/17/hso1706.pdf

    Paper summarizes selected source information concerning strongholds as power institutions of Polish monarchy in 10th–12th c. AD: forged foundation diploma for Mogilno Benedictine abbey (with date 1065), papal bullae for Gniezno, Włocławek, Wrocław and Kraków dioceses, and relevant fragments of Gallus Anonymus and Magister Vincentius chronicles.

  • Współksiążęta czy konprincepsi? Kilka uwag o statusie prezydenta Francji i biskupa Urgell jako głowy państwa andorańskiego w kontekście formy ustrojowej Andory

    Author: Marcin Michał Wiszowaty
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 327-345
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/18/ppk1819.pdf

    The constitutional system of Andorra is not a popular subject of study of science either in Poland or abroad. In Poland, after 1993 (the year the adoption of the current constitution) were published only a few articles or fragments of larger studies on this topic. As a result, the vast majority of these studies have mainly reporting character. Many interesting issues have been mentioned only in footnotes. Among them: the question of the status of specific, Andorran head of state and (resulting) the correct indication of the form of Andorran state. Co-principes are translated into Polish as „co-princes”. It consequently, automatically determined Andorra as a „principality”, ie the state of monarchical system, and even a constitutional monarchy . This should be considered , at least as controversial. The author formulates two hypotheses and subjected them to verify. Firstly – Andorra is a principate (not a principality) – a mixed form of political system combines elements of monarchy and republic, outweigh the latter, in addition to the relics of the former. Head of State in principate should be referred to as „princeps”, and in the case of Andorra, specifically: co-princeps. In this way we will avoid misleading comparisons with „a prince”, as monarchical, hereditary head of state. Secondly – despite the adoption of a modern constitution, there are remaining relics of feudal times in the political system of Andorra, resulting from the former status of „condominium”. This is particularly evident in the form of the Andorran heads of state institution. It also gives a partial capacity to influence decisions of the co-principes by their home country’s authorities.

  • Oryginalne rozwiązania systemów rządów na przykładzie Sułtanatu Omanu

    Author: Joanna Uliasz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 97-113
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/19/ppk1904.pdf

    The article provides a snapshot of Oman’s leading political institutions. It also contains description of Oman’s political power structure. At the beginning author presents a historical background of the events that led to the taking of power by the current ruling sultan. Subsequently, the legislature, the executive, the judiciary and suffrage are discussed. In conclusion, the author makes a brief assessment of a functioning system of government in Oman.

  • An Outline History of the King’s Veto in Spain

    Author: Michał Zbigniew Dankowski
    Institution: Jagiellonian College - Toruń University
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 545-556
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5844.pdf

    Although the current Constitution of 1978 does not include the right to a legislative veto among royal prerogatives, this institution has a rich tradition in Spanish constitutionalism. In the 19th century, despite the clash between conservative and liberal ideas, the King almost continuously had the right to refuse to sanction law projects. Only the political changes of the 20th century finally deprived the monarch of the right to intervene in the legislative process. However, under the current Constitution, all laws must be sanctioned by the King, which often causes political and legal controversy.

  • Pozycja ustrojowa głowy państwa w Księstwie Liechtensteinu

    Author: Krzysztof Koźbiał
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 277-287
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/61/ppk6118.pdf

    The Position of a Head of State in the Political System of the Principality of Liechtenstein

    The aim of the article is to present the position of a head of state in the Principality of Liechtenstein. The Principality is one of the European monarchies, but it is distinguished from others by the fact that the position of the prince is far-reaching, by no means limited only to representatives functions. The prince’s activity to internal and external politics is rooted in the constitution in force since 1921 and was presented in the article. The position of the head of state also results from historical and social conditions. It is salso based on non-constitutional solutions. Princerly prerogatives are broad. Although attempts were made to limit them, such proposals were rejected in a referendum. Additionally, during the voting in 2003, the ruler’s powers were further extended.

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