• “The Property Has Been Fiercely Divided” between the Authorities in Russia and the Capital Is a “Tasty Morsel” for the People Who Govern it – the current economic situation in Moscow

    Author: Natalia Gburzyńska
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 348–362
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014020.pdf

    This article refers to the contemporary situation in the Russian economy and in the Russian capital economy. Economy in Russia is based on the extraction of raw materials. However, in 2010 economic forecasts for the country were optimistic. In this period economic development was strong and the country became a member of the BRICS group. One of the issues of the Russian Federation economy was the backing of the old system. Most investments were focused on the energy sector when in the public sector the changes were smaller. To increase revenues and funds big reforms are necessary and new investments. One possibility to improve the economic situation is to focus on greater extraction of raw materials. Another option is to resign from a monocultural economy. The situation in Moscow is better than the general economic situation in the Russian Federation. GDP increased regularly. In 2008 Russia took 15th place in the ranking of the hundred largest cities GDP. Th e Moscow economy is based especially on the trade of energy resources. Moreover, profi t is gained from business activities and industry. The level of unemployment in Moscow is the lowest in comparison to all regions. In the capital city it fluctuates between 0,5% and 1%. A major problem in the capital city is the constant immigration from other part of the Federation and other foreign countries. In majority, people who come to Moscow are the job seekers. Also the signifi cant problem is ubiquitous corruption.

  • Akt końcowy KBWE i jego wpływ na instytucjonalizację ruchu praw człowieka w krajach Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej w perspektywie porównawczej 1975–1991 (wybrane aspekty)

    Author: Anna Jach
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, Poland
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 157-175
    DOI Address:
    PDF: npw/13/npw2017210.pdf

    On the 1st of August 1975 in Helsinki, 35 countries signed the Final Act of the CSCE. Running the Helsinki process was crucial for the institutionalization of the human rights movement in Central and Eastern Europe. For the first time the principle of respect for human rights, treated as a manifestation of European security, achieved a high status in the basic international document. Although at the beginning the conference did not have any means of direct impact on Member States, thanks to the adopted mechanisms (Review Conferences ) it became possible to international control over the observance of the principle of protection of human rights. As a result, already in 1976, the first non-governmental organizations, upholding the findings of Helsinki, were established in the USSR, Poland and Czechoslovakia,. In this way, the European communist states were subjected not only international but also internal pressure of societies. Social transformations in each of these countries have become the nucleus of the emerging civil society. The final result of, ongoing since 1973, the CSCE process in 1989, was a fall of the Iron Curtain in 1991 and end of the Yalta–Potsdam order, dividing Europe into the political sphere of influence for more than four decades.


  • Vysshee obrazovanie v Moskve i v Rossii – vozmozhnosti, problemy, perspektivy

    Author: Natalja Gbuzhinskay
    Year of publication: 2014
    Pages: 171-181
    DOI Address:
    PDF: npw/07/npw2014209.pdf

    The main aim of this article is to describe the system of higher education in Russia. Moscow is the biggest academic center in Russian Federation. There are about 60 universities. The largest and most popular are Moscow State University, The Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, International University in Moscow and Moscow State Institute of International Relations. They are two levels of higher education in Russia – Bachelor’s degree (4 years) and Master’s degree (2 years). Both could be obtained while studying full-time or part-time. After that, there is a possibility to finish postgraduate studies. Russian universities cooperate with many foreign educational institutions (including Polish universities). Not only do students have the opportunity to leave in Moscow but also study at Russian academies, for example, Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, Moscow State Institute of International Relations and Diplomatic Academy.

    Higher education in Moscow is affected by various problems. One of them is a decreasing level of education. In fact, students do their specializations, however the level of their general knowledge seems to be low. Furthermore, the education is commercialized since everyone would like to receive a Master’s degree. It suggests that in the near future not only will Russian society have a bigger cadre of professors but also more business and financial universities.

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