national hero

  • Promotion of National Heroes as Civic Role-Models during Democratisation

    Author: Patryk Wawrzyński
    E-mail: p.wawrzynski@umk.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Author: Joanna Marszałek-Kawa
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 101-111
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/tner.2018.52.2.08
    PDF: tner/201802/tner20180208.pdf

    The paper considers the relationship between remembrance narratives on national heroes and proliferation of political attitudes, values and behaviours during democratisation. It discusses the impact of interpretations of the past on the development of civil society in the context of public education as an instrument of identity politics. Comparing the experiences of Chile, Estonia, Georgia, Poland, South Africa and Spain, the authors present the role of national heroes in the legitimisation of behaviours and attitudes, new elites and national unity. The discussed results prove that the establishment of a pro-democratic system of civic education increases chances for successful consolidation of democracy in post-authoritarian countries.

  • «Национальный лидер» («отец народа») в европейском и азиатском восприятии (на примере вождей национального движения крымских татар)

    Author: Светлана Червонная
    E-mail: swetlana@umk.pl
    Institution: Университет Николая Коперника в Торуни
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-40
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20181801
    PDF: npw/18/npw1801.pdf

    “National leader” (“father of the nation”) in the European and Asian perception (on the example of the leaders of the national movement of the Crimean Tatars)

    The stereotypical an “European” and an “Asian” leader, formed in the mass consciousness, does not correspond with contemporary reality. Under the phenomenon of cultural globalization, there is a merging or at times a complete integration of ideal models, including the political leader, chief, head of the state and a “Father of the Nation”. These ideal models exist both in theory and in historical practices of the European and Asian peoples and lands. Nonetheless, some distinctions are manifested between the East, referred to as the Muslim Orient, and the West, known as the Christian, strongly secularized Europe. The meaning of the notion a national leader or a national hero in Europe has a stronger ethnic component. In the West, the leader is most often recognized as an “our own” by an ethnic group. Meanwhile, in the East the leader is conceived as a head and member of a superethnic, inter-state community. In the East, a spiritual person can qualify for the role of the leader. This is unlikely to occur in the European system, where the Church and State are separated and there is a non-intervention of the clergy into politics for a long time. The Crimea has an exceptional location on the borderline of the Eastern and Western civilizations. The examples of three prominent Crimean Tatar leaders of different historical time periods demonstrate how their methods, goals and ideals change and the reasons behind their mass popularity. The three leaders are: Ismail Gasprinsky, educator of a liberal views and Panturkizm’s ideologue; Numan Chelebi Djikhan, the Tavria’s Mufty, who chose the path of revolutionary rebellion against tsarism and bolshevism; Mustafa Djemilev, an “Soviet dissident”, who became a head of Crimean Tatar people’s Kurultai and Medjlis in 1991.

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