Nigeria

  • Fenomen Boko Haram. Afrykański kalifat zagrożeniem dla bezpieczeństwa międzynarodowego

    Author: Marta S. Stempień
    Institution: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 123–133
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.50.07
    PDF: apsp/50/apsp5007.pdf

    Społeczność międzynarodowa jest nieustannie zmuszana do konfrontacji z zagrożeniem ze strony islamskiego terroryzmu w różnych częściach świata, w tym w wielu częściach Afryki, jak np. w Nigerii, gdzie dżihadystowskie powstanie Boko Haram przekształciło się w konflikt regionalny. W przeszłości grupa była powszechnie określana jako sekta religijna, obecnie uznaje się ją za organizację terrorystyczną. Pomimo różnic w metodach działania jest porównywana do Al-Kaidy, Państwa Islamskiego i Talibów. Od marca 2015 roku należy do sieci prowincji Państwa Islamskiego, w związku ze złożeniem przysięgi wierności kalifowi Abu Bakrowi Al-Baghdadiemu. Niniejsza publikacja ma na celu przeanalizowanie fenomenu Boko Haram oraz połączenia jej ze zjawiskiem tworzenia samozwańczych kalifatów. Artykuł uwzględnia nigeryjską tożsamość religijną, etniczną i regionalną, aby wskazać oddziaływanie Boko Haram na bezpieczeństwo międzynarodowe.

  • Between Nation-Building and Contestation for Power: The Place of Party Politics in Nigeria, 1923-2019

    Author: Adetunji Ojo Ogunyemi
    E-mail: motunji@gmail.com
    Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 51-71
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020404
    PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020404.pdf

    By May 29, 2019, Nigeria’s Fourth Republic and democracy had achieved an unprecedented 20 unbroken years of active partisan politics and representative democracy. The First Republic had lasted barely three years (1963-1966); the Second Republic and its democratic institutions lasted just four years (1979-1983) while the Third Republic (19921993) could barely hold its head for one year. Hence, by mid-2019, not many analysts have congratulated Nigeria for its longest democratic experience since its independence from Britain in 1960, but hardly did any of them identify the core reasons for such a sustained rule of democratic ethos for two decades. In this paper, we show the origin and practice of political parties in Nigeria. We argue that the country had succeeded in its Fourth Republic as a democratic country because its law and constitution together with the political culture of the people had permitted multiparty democracy by which governments had been formed, political inclusion and popular participation ensured, and public policies initiated. We also present an analysis of party politicking in the country from its beginning in 1923 and conclude that Nigeria has achieved meaningful and sustainable dividends of democracy in her Fourth Republic because of a maturing culture of partisan politics.

  • Campaigns and Electioneering: Reflecting on the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria

    Author: Emmanuel Osewe Akubor
    E-mail: oseweakubor@gmail.com
    Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 72-86
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020405
    PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020405.pdf

    Historically, campaigns are recognized as a vital part of electioneering since it contains the ideas that the candidate wants to share with the voters, especially regarding policy issues and the administration’s focus. It aims to get those who agree with their ideas to support them when running for a political position. The message often consists of several talking points about policy issues. However, a study of Nigeria’s situation, with specific reference to the 2015 Campaigns and Electioneering, revealed that the main content of campaigns was hate speeches. Therefore, this paper seeks to bring out the main issues of campaigns in Nigeria’s electoral system and why it has often led to electoral violence over the years. The qualitative method is used for this particular research. Data obtained from primary and secondary sources were deployed to carry out the study with an analytical and narrative historical approach. It includes historical, descriptive, and analytical approaches based on gathered evidence. This research’s primary source is based on field investigations conducted in the Nigerian area and surrounding territories. Among other things, the data collection process includes semi-structured interviews with selected individuals. The research also uses historical documents from the national archives, relying on previous research conducted on society, administrative development, and documentary data taken from newspaper accounts, diaries, letters, and verbal reports. This research’s position is that campaigns over the years in Nigeria, unlike what is obtainable in some parts of the world where policy issues form the backbone of campaign message have basically on persons, character assassination, violence, and abusive (hate) speeches. The paper argues that this campaign strategy often leads to electoral violence before, during, and after elections. The paper, therefore, concludes that only issue-based campaigns can guarantee peaceful and credible elections in Nigeria.

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