non-state actors

  • The Threat of Mega-terrorism: Availability, Inhibitors and Motivation

    Author: Rafał Kopeć
    Institution: Pedagogical University in Krakow
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 105-125
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201306
    PDF: rop/2013/rop201306.pdf

    The prospect of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) terrorism poses a danger for contemporary societies. However, the incidents related to an application of weapons of mass destruction (that is, nuclear, chemical, biological and radiological weapons) by non-state actors are relatively rare. The aim of the paper is to present recent incidents and to estimate the threat from particular types of WMD. The author focuses both on the question of motivation to undertake these operations and on the problem of technological capabilities. To sum up, the risk of a massive WMD terrorist attack should be perceived as quite moderate due to the technological barrier, but selective attacks carry a greater potential risk because of their higher probability and significant psychological effect.

  • Hybrid Warfare or Hybrid Threat – The Weaponization of Migration as an Example of the Use of Lawfare – Case Study of Poland

    Author: Piotr Łubiński
    Institution: Pedagogical University of Kraków
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6007-5683
    Published online: 30 December 2021
    Final submission: 22 November 2021
    Printed issue: 2022
    Source: Show
    Page no: 13
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202209
    PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202209.pdf

    This article aims to address the issue of alleged hybrid warfare attacks on Lithuania, Latvia, and Poland. The scope of the article covers the Belarus operations conducted in 2021. Firstly, the author addresses the issue of pushing migrants from a descriptive perspective. Secondly, he debates whether Belarus operation was conducted within the scope of hybrid warfare, hybrid threat, and lawfare? The author concludes that the Republic of Belarus has operated lawfare falling within the hybrid threat spectrum. It means that the situation is not to be classified under the law of armed conflict from the perspective of international and non-international armed conflicts and ius ad bellum violation. Thirdly, the author claims that Belarus has violated international law, so certain legal redress is appropriate and justified. Belarus's actions may result in a court proceeding before the International Court of Justice and before other international institutions.

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