Olympic Games

  • Sports Performance and Shaping International Image of a China: Towards Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    E-mail: mkobierecki@uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 138-150
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017109
    PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017109.pdf

    China is a country that has been using sport in order to reach political goals for many years. Lately such political exploitation of sport is directed at shaping the desirable international image of this country. This is done most of all through hosting sports events, but also through sports victories. The last aspect is the subject of this research. The aim of the article is therefore to investigate the issue of utilization of performance in international sport in order to enhance international image of a China. The research presented in the article is a case study concerning sport as a tool of nation-branding. Its main objective is to analyse motivation of China’s decision-makers to use sports performance in order to enhance the country’s international perception, and to observe how this goals is executed. The main hypothesis to be tested states that China perceives sports performance as an important tool of enhancing its international image. 

  • Boycott of the Los Angeles 1984 Olympic Games as an Example of Political Play–Acting of the Cold War Superpowers

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 93-111
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2015008
    PDF: ppsy/44/ppsy2015008.pdf

    Sports boycott is one of the most important dimension of sport colliding with politics. The subject of the article is the boycott of the Los Angeles Olympic Games in 1984, one of the most spectacular boycotts, which was conducted by communist countries. It is widely recognized, that Los Angeles Olympics were boycotted as a result of a similar action by Western countries towards Moscow Olympics in 1980. However, evidence proves that there was no decision concerning communist boycott of Los Angeles Olympics until a few months before the Games. Preparations to the Olympics were on their way, but unexpected change of Soviet leader resulted in the boycott. Safety reasons were the declared reason for the boycott of the Soviet Union and 13 other communist countries. Nevertheless, it is evident that the real reasons were connected with the political game of USSR. The probable actual aims were the desire to hit the first ever privately financed Olympic Games and to make it harder for American president Ronald Raegan to be reelected. Naturally, at least partly it was also a matter of revenge for boycotting the Moscow Games.

  • Summer Olympic Games in Beijing in the context of selected scientific theories

    Author: Tomasz Matras
    E-mail: tomaszmatas.uniwroc@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4136-2038
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-22
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2019101
    PDF: so/15/so1501.pdf

    Summer Olympic Games in Beijing in the context of selected scientific theories

    Summer Olympic Games is, apart from football world cup, the most popular sports event. It is widely believed that it is something more than just sports event. It can be analysed from economic, marketing or political perspective. It is an opportunity to present country’s own culture, technology and history. However, there is also some kind of threat associated with such events. Organization of such events is not possible without involvement of public sector and political bodies. It creates specific relationship in which sport affects functioning of the state in some areas and state may use Olympic Games for its own particularistic interests. Such relationship occurred also in the case of 29th Summer Olympic Games in Beijing that took place between 8.08.2008 and 24.08.2008.
    This article shows how China tried to use the olympic games to achieve political goals. Additionally, it was verified to what extent the organization of the event influenced the change of perception of China to international arena, civil liberties and the consolidation of society around the political bodies. The considerations were based on several scientific theories defining the role of sport in image building countries – presented by Barrie Houlihan, Joshua Goldstein, Walter Maening and Maurice Roche.

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