opinion

  • Challenges of Fight Against Terrorism with Reference to the Last Amendment of the New Hungarian Criminal Code

    Author: Robert Bartko
    E-mail: drbartkorobert@gmail.com
    Institution: University of Győr (Hungary)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 315-327
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017120
    PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017120.pdf

    During the codification of the new Hungarian Criminal Code, the Hungarian Legislator passed amendment of several criminal offences. Among other criminal offences, this rethinking concerned the regulation of acts of terrorism. The number of terrorist offences relating to illegal migration has increased in the past few years in the territory of the European Union, therefore the attitude of the Member States – including Hungary, as well – has changed with reference to the statutory definition of the acts of terrorism. The connection between irregular border crossings and terrorism was recognized by the European Union. Terrorist offences have proved the vulnerability of the European Union and the democratic, rule-of-law States. Furthermore, the last few years have also clearly proved that Europe cannot cope with the influx of refugees set out for the Western Europe from various parts of the world. In this respect, illegal migration cannot be only a tool, but also a catalyst for terrorist offences. It means that case conflicts and violent affairs are caused by the migration, and the illegal entry and the integration of terrorists are supported by migratory networks at the same time. In 2015 and 2016, the European Union experienced a massive number of casualties caused by terrorist attacks. The most affected Member State was France. It had to cope with attacks which caused 148 citizens’ death and more than 350 people injured only in January and November 2015 (TE-SAT 2016, p. 5.). For the abovementioned recognition, many regulations (included but not limited to the Fundamental Law of Hungary, the Hungarian Criminal Code and the Act on Criminal Procedure) were passed in 2016 by the Hungarian legislator in order to stop illegal migration and to strengthen the fight against the new forms of terrorism. In the context of the present paper, the Act LXIX of 2016, which came into force on 17 July 2016, is of importance. Not only the General Part, but also the Special Part of the Hungarian Criminal Code was amended by the above Act. However, many new rules may be challenged from the perspective of the rule of law and the European commitments of Hungary. The aim of the paper is to describe the new regulations regarding the Hungarian statutory definition of acts of terrorism, and to analyse them within the Hungarian criminal legal frame and the abovementioned European requirements. Therefore, the characteristic of the paper will be the analytical method with the aim of creating de lege ferenda proposals for the Hungarian legislator, as well. In our paper, we are going to deal with the new European directive, as well, which will replace the Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and will amend the Council Decision 2005/671/JHA from 20 April 2017. 

  • International Law and the Nagorno–Karabakh War: Opinion on Political Aspects

    Author: Sadir Surkhay Mammadov
    E-mail: centrum.polskie.bsu@gmail.com
    Institution: Baku Slavic University (Azerbaijan)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 385-390
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016028
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016028.pdf

    The opinion report considers relations between international norms, Azerbaijan’s national legal system and political understandings of the Nagorno–Karabakh conflict. It discusses classification of Armenian actions in a context of the international law’s development and an impact of international regulations on national criminal codes. Therefore, it presents the Azerbaijani perspective on major political aspects of the Nagorno–Karabakh War and international response to Armenian occupation of Azerbaijan’s territories. Moreover, it evaluates Armenian actions in the region with reference to the definition of genocide and international policy of its prevention. In general, the opinion report shows how the Azerbaijani society understands the conflict and how it may be classified on the basis of the Soviet law (as acts of terror has started in the late 1980s), the international law and the contemporary Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan. As a result, it is not only a report that introduces the Azerbaijan’s perspective on the issue, but it can also be recognised as an interesting source to understand how the Azerbaijani people label actions of their neighbouring nation. 

  • The New Journalism: an Attempt at the Model Reconstruction

    Author: Iwona Hofman
    E-mail: iwonahofman@gmail.com
    Institution: Maria Curie–Skłodowska University in Lublin (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 391-398
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016029
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016029.pdf

    An attempt at reconstruction of the New Journalism model results from the observation of the crisis symptoms of journalism as a profession and mission (social responsibility). On the grounds of journalists’ and theoreticians’ statements, it is possible to establish a hierarchy of values of the serious journalism, which a social demand is growing for. The New Journalism is most frequently described as the conscious journalism, which provides spectrum of needs and views of recipients. This type of journalism is committed, independent, functioning in the public sphere, credible, realizing educational role. These attributes pertain to journalism. The paper includes standpoints, for example, of S. Michalczyk, B. Hennessy, P. Mancini, S. Russ–Mohl, S. Bratkowski, R. Kapuściński. 

  • The Political Leadership Section of the Polish Political Science Association: Origins and Activity

    Author: Maciej Hartliński
    E-mail: maciej.hartlinski@uwm.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 399-403
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016030
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016030.pdf

    One of the most important aspects of academic life is cooperation between researchers from different centres. Different levels of experience, approaches and paradigms enable researchers to observe the complete image of categories. The Political Leadership Section of the Polish Political Science Association has been formed during the Second Nationwide Congress of Political Science in Poznań (2012). The Association’s Board has established it on February 7, 2013. Since that day the section integrates scholars from different universities interested in issues of political leadership, it supports development of this research field in Poland, it collects published monographs, editions and papers relevant to this field and it coordinates development of teaching standards in education on political leadership. The section’s activity and its role in Polish academic community proves that this topic has become a significant aspect of social sciences in the country. 

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