państwo

  • Relacje państwo–Kościół na przełomie XX i XXI wieku. Przypadek Polski

    Author: Grzegorz Piwnicki
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 146-164
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201709
    PDF: cip/15/cip1509.pdf

    Problemy wiary i religii państwa świeckiego, ich wzajemnych relacji są w czasach chwiejącego się świata1 bardzo istotne i nie do przecenienia.
    Należy szukać odpowiedzi jak pogodzić renesans religijności ze wzmożonym sekularyzmem w różnych krajach. Mówimy również o postsekularyzmie. Te ważkie zagadnienia determinują podziały polityczne w Polsce. Bez wspólnego dialogu, dążenia do konsensusu, odrzucenia fundamentalności możemy jako wspólnota polska przestać istnieć.
    Grozi nam przejście od utopii do dystopii. Wszystko zależy od tego jak reagować na te wyzwania będą państwo i Kościół katolicki. Należy również odrzucić wszelkie fobie i nacjonalizm z szowinizmem narodowym.

  • REFLEKSJE NA TEMAT NARODU I PAŃSTWA W POLSKIEJ MYŚLI POLITYCZNEJ

    Author: SEBASTIAN PACZOS
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 63-89
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso140203
    PDF: hso/7/hso703.pdf

  • Kapitał społeczny jako czynnik rozwoju społeczeństwa i państwa

    Author: Mateusz Radziszewski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-31
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.62.01
    PDF: apsp/62/apsp6201.pdf

    Niniejszy artykuł traktuje na temat społeczeństwa obywatelskiego jako potencjalnego instrumentu mogącego wpłynąć na podniesienie jakości demokratycznego systemu politycznego. Ukazanie źródeł sfery obywatelskiej oraz wskazanie na czynniki ją sankcjonujące, poprzez wykorzystanie koncepcji kapitału społecznego, umożliwia pogłębioną analizę relacji społecznych w wymiarze społecznym, jak i politycznym. W tym celu należy odwołać się do szerokiego dorobku badaczy z zakresu nauk społecznych, których efektem będzie modelowa analiza zjawiska tworzenia się społeczeństwa obywatelskiego oraz jego potencjalnych efektów dla całego systemu politycznego.

  • The activity of the Catholic Church during the election campaign

    Author: Jakub Stępień
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0106-6805
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 159-173
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.05.11
    PDF: ppk/51/ppk5111.pdf

    The legal situation of the Catholic Church in the Third Republic of Poland allows the Church to operate in a public space on specific principles and within accepted boundaries, determined by developing a conciliatory position of all interested com- munities. It is important, however, to point out that, due to the continuous evolu- tion of mutual relations between the secular and ecclesiastical authorities – caused by a number of social and political factors – doubts arise periodically about both the nature and the shape of mutual relations. One of the periods with the greatest significance for this type of reflection is the election campaign. The following ar- ticle contains information on relations between the state and the Catholic Church in the aspect of the relations of communities, supplemented with an analysis of the provisions of secular and canon law regarding the possibilities of clerics’ activity in the sphere of broadly understood political activity on the territory of the Third Re- public of Poland.

  • Specifics of the So-Called Islamic State

    Author: Kinga Smoleń
    Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 84-111
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.67.06
    PDF: apsp/67/apsp6706.pdf

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the specific character of the so-called Islamic State. For the purposes of the study it is based on two assumptions. Firstly, the rise of the so-called Islamic State was determined by a number of regional and international conditions, in particular the destabilization of the Middle Eastern order, the events of the Arab Spring, operations of the United States in the region, globalization processes, and technological development. Secondly, the specific nature of the so-called Islamic State, reflected in the use of violence and intimidation, noncompliance with the principles of international law, and challenging the international order exclude the possibility of the entity in question being considered as a person of international law. To begin, with view to attain the research objective stated above and under consideration of the research hypotheses adopted herein, this paper examines the root causes behind the rise of the so-called Islamic State at the regional and international level. Subsequently, it defines the specific nature of the entity in question, taking into account its territory, internal structure, principles of operation, and personality.

  • The Reform of the State According to Law and Justice and the Civic Coalition in the Election Programmes of the Parliamentary Elections in 2019

    Author: Damian Wicherek
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1710-0820
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 297-306
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.24
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5824.pdf

    The article analyzes the election programmes of the two largest political parties in Poland, namely, Law and Justice and the Civic Platform (Civic Coalition) from the 2019 parliamentary elections, referring to the proposals of these parties to change the functioning of the state, in particular the scope of legislative, executive and judicial power. The conclusion summarizes the presented programme proposals, considering whether their implementation would be possible under the current political conditions.

  • Peaceful Ways of Solving International Disputes by the Mediation Method and Legal Security of State

    Author: Marcin Jurgilewicz
    Institution: Rzeszow University of Technology
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2243-2165
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 317-329
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.26
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5826.pdf

    Nowadays, international disputes appear in the public space, which results, for example, from the fact that the needs are unlimited and the goods are limited. Due to its specific nature, the international environment requires a compromise between the entities operating in it. A desirable direction in case of conflicts between international entities is to resolve them by peaceful means. In the international environment, one of the largest international organizations - the United Nations - is of great significance, especially in the field of maintaining international order and peace. In turn, according to the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, it is possible to resolve international disputes by peaceful means, and among the characteristic methods used in this type of proceedings is the mediation method, the effectiveness of which allows, in the long term, to maintain the desired state of peace, strengthening the legal security of the state.

  • Model relacji między państwem a związkami wyznaniowymi na Ukrainie – aspekt prawny

    Author: Kacper Milkowski
    Institution: Akademia Ekonomiczno-Humanistyczna w Warszawie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4367-0365
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 225-247
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.01.14
    PDF: ppk/59/ppk5914.pdf

    The purpose of the publication is to characterize the model of relations between the state and religious organizations in Ukraine. After Ukraine gained independence in 1991, it was necessary to regulate issues related to the functioning of religious organizations in accordance with democratic standards. The model of separation adopted in the Constitution of Ukraine is the culmination of political changes. However, the Constitution of Ukraine provides for guarantees of freedom of conscience and religion, based on international standards arising from the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966 and the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 1950. Pursuant to Article 35 of the Constitution of Ukraine, everyone has the right to ideological freedom and to choose a religion. This right includes: freedom to profess any religion or not profess religion, freely cultivate religious or ritual cults individually or collectively, and conduct religious activities. This right may be restricted only if it is in the interest of protecting public order, health and morality of the population, or protecting the rights and freedoms of others. It should be noted that the law in question correlates with the constitutional provisions regarding the “ideological diversity” of social life in Ukraine, where the state cannot make any ideology compulsory – Art. 15 of the Constitution. Nevertheless, there is traditionally a significant influence of religious institutions on social relations, political events, which is explained by the historical significance of churches and religious organizations in the life of Slavic peoples and the specificity of the national mentality, the main component of which is religious spirituality. The author in this publication analyzes the legal system. The article also discusses selected problems related to the practical application of legal provisions.

  • Prawa człowieka w konstytucjach wybranych państw europejskich

    Author: Grzegorz Janusz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5517-8605
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 359-374
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.23
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6223.pdf

    Human rights in the constitutions of selected European countries

    Nowadays human rights are an essential part of constitutional regulations in the European countries. The very first universal regulation based on the rights of every citizen, was The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen set in 1789. Analysed constitutions of France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Latvia, Bohemia, Slovakia and Poland point to the developments of rights of individuals through expanding these rights from the rights of the citizens to the rights of every person on the territory of a particular country. Obviously, the rights concerning exclusively the citizens of a particular country, like for example the right to vote, have still been maintained. A modern catalogue of rights and freedoms of individuals is abundant and expanded by, for example, the right to the constitutional complaint or the right to a clear environment. Nowadays the human rights standards are widely recognised though not always respected. This results from the legal and political practise, in which the scope of the rights of individuals is still being narrowed. One of the reasons are ideological and political changes in particular countries, which are being enforced with the development of civilisation and technology.

  • Zagadnienie organizacji państwa i społeczeństwa polskiego w epoce piastowskiej w dorobku naukowym Aleksandra Gieysztora oraz Gerarda Labudy

    Author: Zbyszko Górczak
    Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9258-145X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 116-130
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso210305
    PDF: hso/30/hso3005.pdf

    The main theses of the authors concerned the mutual relation between social changes and the formation of state organisation, the militarisation of the Early Piast State (G. Labuda) and the question of the native, pre-foundation beginnings of urban life in Poland. In their research, A. Gieysztor and G. Labuda often used the methods of retrogression and comparison; in addition, G. Labuda appreciated the importance of archaeological findings.

  • Konstytucyjne prawo jednostki do ochrony wolności i praw człowieka a kształtowanie bezpieczeństwa indywidualnego - interdyscyplinarne ujęcie problemu

    Author: Monika Wojakowska
    Institution: Szkoła Główna Służby Pożarniczej w Warszawie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6201-9124
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 459-469
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.36
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6336.pdf

    Constitutional right of an individual to the protection of freedom and human rights and shaping individual safety – interdisciplinary approach to the problem

    The obligations of the state towards people and citizens are included in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, those concerning security in Art. 5. However, this document does not clearly define the essence of this concept. The aim of the article is to show the need to include it in the basic law. The analysis of legal acts, literature in the field of security, state and law, and own research shows that society needs an unambiguous definition of terms. Of course, it was emphasized that the clarification of the definition of security in the Polish Constitution is not a simple challenge, as it cannot be formulated in absolute terms. However, an attempt can be made to analyze the subjective and objective approach to the problem. The need to look at individual security through the prism of development and the use of individual opportunities in the light of the common good protected by law has been demonstrated.

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