państwo demokratyczne

  • Odpowiedzialność funkcjonariuszy Policji i innych współczesnych formacji za pełnienie służby w organach bezpieczeństwa PRL – aspekty konstytucyjne

    Author: Marcin Dąbrowski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 121-144
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/42/ppk4207

    The article concerns on a problem of social security and analyzes issue of the change of provisions which regulate pensions of officers of communistic security services, who served their duties after the communistic system collapsed in the Republic of Poland (after the year 1990). The amendment of statutory law has seriously reduced the amount of pensions of indicated above officers. Firstly the author of the essay criticizes the statutory definition (temporal limits) of the totalitarianism, which took place in Poland after the Second World War. It is found that provisions wrongly indicates that communistic totalitarianism ended in 1990, while historians officially claim that it had taken place in 1956. In the second part of the article the author argues that statutory changes seriously violate the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997. New, actually binding provisions are unfair, demoralizing and discriminate persons who legally preformed duties in security formations after the year 1990.

  • Podstawowe domniemania w procesie weryfikacji wyborów w państwie demokratycznym

    Author: Wojciech Mojski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 225-234
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6212.pdf

    Basic presumptions in the judicial election verification process in a democratic state

    The election verification process, understood as checking the correctness of their course within the legally prescribed framework, is an essential element of the election procedure in a democratic state. This process in a relatively short period of time, must lead to the declaration of validity or nullity of the elections, which is necessary for confirming or contradicting the democratic legitimacy of elected representatives of power. The complexity of the elections translates into the complexity of the process of their verification, which, in order to simplify it, leads to the use of legally established presumptions in it. The aim of this study is the theoretical analysis of the basic election presumptions of democratic states, i.e. the presumption of validity of elections and the presumption of constitutionality of the election procedure, taking into account the systemic dangers related to their incorrect application.

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