parliamentarism

  • The President of the Republic of Poland in the Light of Constitutions Adopted in Poland Between 1918 and 2018 – Selected Issues

    Author: Łukasz Danel
    Institution: Uniwersyt Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9715-3377
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-20
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm201801
    PDF: ksm/23/ksm201801.pdf

    The article concerns the constitutional position and political role of the President of the Republic of Poland. Though the Author concentrates on the current constitution of Poland, that entered info force in 1997, he also reviews all the constitutions (and important amendments to these constitutions) that were adopted over the last century, so after Poland had restored its sovereignty in 1918.
    The analysis is concentrated not only on the constitutional position and political role of the Polish president, but also on the way he was (and is) elected. The Author tries to prove a thesis that the actual political position of the head in the state in Poland depended and still depends not only on constitutional provisions, but also on specific political circumstances, and even the character and personality of the people holding this office.

  • Concepts of Separation of Powers in a Comparative Approach – Similarities and Dissimilarities

    Author: Lóránt Csink
    E-mail: csink.lorant@jak.ppke.hu
    Institution: Faculty of Law and Political Sciences of Pázmány Péter Catholic University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6098-086X
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 313-325
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2018.06.26
    PDF: ppk/46/ppk4626.pdf

    Separation of powers is one of the most basic principles democratic states are based on. Still, there is No. common standpoint what exactly separation of powers means. The present essay examines the ideas of Rousseau, Marxist scholars and some modern theorists concerning separation of powers and checks and balances mechanisms that exist in the legal system. The author analyses as well how the different powers balance each other in practice.

  • Przewodniczący Rządu w Republice Czeskiej - ewolucja pozycji ustrojowej i praktyka konstytucyjna

    Author: Jacek Wojnicki
    E-mail: jacekwojnicki@poczta.onet.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4289-989X
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 273-294
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.14
    PDF: ppk/56/ppk5614.pdf

    Chairman of the Government in the Czech Republic - Evolution of Political System and Constitutional Practice

    The article discusses the evolution of the political position of heads of government in the Czech Republic. Time censures are between 1992 and 2019. The institution of the Prime Minister has become a real instrument of political power for the leaders of political groups in the country discussed. The parliamentary model of government in force in the Czech Republic assumes close cooperation between the legislative and executive authorities. The analysis includes both the constitutional regulations and political practice of the last nearly 30 years.

  • Right-wing and left-wing populist parties as a threat to modern liberal democracies

    Author: Maksym Burdiuh
    E-mail: maksymburdiuh@gmail.com
    Institution: National University of Kyiv
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0017-3588
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-21
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021101
    PDF: rop/15/rop1501.pdf

    The article analyses modern populism as a challenge to liberal democracy in terms of the activities of right-wing and left-wing political parties. An important factor in the growth of populism is the lack of effectiveness of constitutionalism and other formal limited institutions, procedures to ensure the principles of people’s sovereignty, democracy, justice, guarantee the interests of the majority in the modern world. It is noted that populism emerged in the late 19th century as a social movement, ideology, and political activity, and since then has firmly taken its place in the political consciousness of the masses, gaining new features and intensifying at times when countries are experiencing turning points in their history. The main factors in the growth of populism include the insufficient effectiveness of the institutions of indirect democracy in modern consolidated democracies. Another reason for the rise of populism is related to the tendency of ideological deradicalization, which manifested itself in the activities of different parties. Today, populism does not have a developed fundamental theoretical background and conceptual texts like nationalism and conservatism. However, it has a holistic structure as a political phenomenon and a set of ideological positions. The goal of modern populism is the introduction of “illiberal democracy” – a government that ensures smooth transformation of people’s preferences into public policy (unlike liberal democracies, which are almost always hindered by certain obstacles to responding effectively to pressing problems). From this point of view, populism is not a threat to democracy as such, but the leading liberal version of democracy. The possibilities of constitutionalism are treated with scepticism in the populist ideology, as formal, limited institutions and procedures prevent the majority from executing their will. Liberal democracy is not strong enough and constantly needs strengthening elements in response to new challenges and threats. But liberal democracy, more than any other political form, contains the potential for development, a synergistic resource, and the power of self-correction. A strong parliament and a developed civil society remain effective counterweight to populism.

  • Wszystko już było, czyli dziedzictwo polskiego parlamentaryzmu XX wieku

    Author: Sławomir Patyra
    E-mail: pteam@op.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6331-9006
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 75-94
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.04
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6204.pdf

    Everything has already been done, i.e. the heritage of the Polish parliamentarism of the 20th century

    The Article is an attempt to evaluate the experiences of Polish parliamentarism in the twentieth century. The author analyzes Polish constitutional regulations and parliamentary practice, with a particular focus on the solutions adopted in the years 1919–1935, as well the impact of these regulations on the evolution of Polish parliamentarism after the Second World War, also taking into account the current political experiences. The analysis leads the author to the conclusion, that the contemporary defects of the system of parliamentary government are to a large extent the result of the historical experiences of Polish parliamentarism.

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