peace

  • The Right to Peace in the Polish Legal System: Considerations de lege lata

    Author: Małgorzata Babula
    E-mail: malgorzata.babula@gmail.com
    Institution: WSPiA University of Rzeszów (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 186-198
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017112
    PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017112.pdf

    Nowadays peace became scarce. Expanding conflicts, terrorist attacks and the uncertainty so common to today's times put in question the value that was won after many years of war. The Constitution is free from regulations treating directly about peace. There are only few references to it. Perhaps, peace is a luxury for which we have to fight, and neither a right that must be protected nor freedom which we can/should use. Maybe it is not supposed to be talked about the right to peace, but about some kind of a privilege. Therefore, it would be necessary to admit, that there is a mistake done already in the subject of this paper. This area seems also to be interesting especially, when moving the optics and focusing on the actions and declarations of heads of states while implementing the common political objectives that are at odds with objectives of other/opposite countries. The word war is used like a substitute for terms ‘peace, freedom and prosperity’, or even worse, like a way to it. 

  • Peace Science: Orientation and Reorientation

    Author: Egon Spiegel
    E-mail: egon.spiegel@gmx.net
    Institution: University of Vechta (Germany)
    Author: Cheng Liu
    E-mail: history@nju.edu.cn
    Institution: Nanjing University (China)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 245-256
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016019
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016019.pdf

    Peace is non–violence and there is only one way to achieve it: peace as structural and interpersonal non–violence. The daily non–violence is as instructive as the spectacular actions of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King. Peace education is better based on demonstration what we “can” than to postulate of what we should do. The Peace Studies prefer a resource–oriented approach to education instead of a deficit–oriented. Our central thesis is that the youth is living in a kind of transculturality, the best conditions for peacebuilding. Considering the increasing sensitivity we expected that latest in 2075 we will make the war a taboo. The central key to solve conflicts nonviolently is conflict transformation in trusting a spiritual third power in between the opponents, even secularized people. The peace education has to help us to discover the third in nonviolent activities. There is a lot of difficult issues that the non–violence has to reflect in future, including elimination of the extreme violence, reconciliation, an impact of economy, the peacebuilding’s relevance of structural measures. 

  • Peace Studies: Basics and Issues

    Author: Egon Spiegel
    Institution: University of Vechta (Germany)
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 21-33
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013002
    PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013002.pdf

    Although questions of peace are different in context, for specific questions today, we need a science of peace in a universal sense. It is true that sometimes talking about peace is too unspecified and therefore too general. The term peace in its common sense has passed its peak. Instead of talking about peace we prefer talking much more concretely and bindingly for example about (racism and) intercultural learning, (violence in family and) nonviolent education, (exploitation and) fair economic structures, (war and) nonviolent conflict transformation, (patriarchalism and) gender awareness, (ecological destruction and) animal protection. Developments of differentiation are positive. We can meet questions of peace on different levels of living together and in different parts of our life and therefore in a lot of terms describe special problem areas. Anyway we have to reflect on the universal dimensions as well as the principles of peace. Using the term makes sense furthermore.

  • Amnesties: conditio sine qua non for a Lasting Peace Solution or Ticking Time Bomb for Peacebuilding?

    Author: Agnieszka Szpak
    E-mail: aszpak@umk.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 537-552
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018307
    PDF: ppsy/47-3/ppsy2018307.pdf

    The author attempts to define amnesty and describe conditions that must be met for amnesties to be in accordance with international law. This in turn involves an analysis of legality of amnesties. The paper also examines motivation for granting amnesty and desirability as well as the future of granting amnesties. In the end a nuanced approach is adopted highlighting the fact that amnesties are neither conditio sine qua non for a lasting peace solution nor ticking time-bombs for peacebuilding. This reflects the idea of this paper that justice is not an absolute and sometimes it might be necessary to let go and combine judicial and non-judicial mechanisms (including the disclosure of truth and reparations for the victims) in order to achieve sustainable peace.

  • Some Reflections on the Theory of Hybrid Activities

    Author: Benon Zbigniew Szałek
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-17
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.68.01
    PDF: apsp/68/apsp6801.pdf

    This paper presents some remarks on the theory of hybrid activities. Analysis of relevant texts indicates that at present there is no real theory of hybrid activities. Interpretations and definitions of hybrid activities differ to some extent and certain important features are missing. For example, some authors opine that hybrid activities consist of simultaneous military and non-military operations. This opinion is not necessarily true as non-military activities can precede military activities. Monitoring this phase of hybrid activities is particularly important. The so-called “crisis management” covers (from the viewpoint of praxeology) a too narrow area.

  • Peaceful Ways of Solving International Disputes by the Mediation Method and Legal Security of State

    Author: Marcin Jurgilewicz
    E-mail: m.jurgilewicz@prz.edu.pl
    Institution: Rzeszow University of Technology
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2243-2165
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 317-329
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.26
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5826.pdf

    Nowadays, international disputes appear in the public space, which results, for example, from the fact that the needs are unlimited and the goods are limited. Due to its specific nature, the international environment requires a compromise between the entities operating in it. A desirable direction in case of conflicts between international entities is to resolve them by peaceful means. In the international environment, one of the largest international organizations - the United Nations - is of great significance, especially in the field of maintaining international order and peace. In turn, according to the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, it is possible to resolve international disputes by peaceful means, and among the characteristic methods used in this type of proceedings is the mediation method, the effectiveness of which allows, in the long term, to maintain the desired state of peace, strengthening the legal security of the state.

  • The Constitution as the Basis for Strategic Principles of a Strategic Leader in the Chaos of Conflict

    Author: Maciej Milczanowski
    E-mail: mmilczanowski@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2322-2074
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 593-601
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.48
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5848.pdf

    The Constitution - the Basic Law is the foundation of the organization in a given country. It defines the general principles of the functioning of internal relations, the competences of its most important elements, and the fundamental rights and freedoms of a person and a citizen2. And the strategy can be perceived as the general outlines of the actions of competent leaders determining the far-reaching aim. It is characterized by a long-term strategic perspective, combining the set of with the strive for solutions that are beneficial not only for themselves, their surroundings, and supporters but also for the paradigm of the common good. Societies during, or immediately after the conflict, seek stabilization. That can be ensured by actions based on a strategy that takes into account the fundamental principles of internal relations. Combining those two paradigms, the Constitution, taking into account the rights of minorities, guaranteeing civil liberties and human rights, may be the basic factor of the strategy of the competent leader, aiming to post-conflict stabilization.

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