People’s Republic of China

  • Szanghajska Organizacja Współpracy jako jedna z form wielopłaszczyznowej współpracy Rosji i Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej

    Author: Anna Kobierecka
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 38–57
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2017.54.03
    PDF: apsp/54/apsp5403.pdf

    Upadek świata dwubiegunowego może zostać uznany za nowe otwarcie w stosunkach chińsko- rosyjskich. Sytuacja międzynarodowa na początku lat 90. umożliwiła odnowienie i normalizację stosunków politycznych między tymi państwami oraz zapoczątkowanie współpracy na kilku płaszczyznach. Rozwijanie kontaktów zarówno politycznych, jak i gospodarczych okazało się być procesem długotrwałym, warunkowanym przez liczne wewnętrzne i zewnętrzne czynniki. Celem artykułu jest analiza ewoucji wzajemnych relacji, motywacji działania, źródeł współpracy oraz jej znaczenia. Biorąc pod uwagę rosnące strategiczne znaczenie regionu eurazjatyckiego, szczególnym aspektem w kontekście współpracy Federacji Rosyjskiej i Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej jest jej istota dla bezpieczeństwa międzynarodowego. Przeprowadzana analiza będzie uwzględniała zwłaszcza współpracę rozwijaną z wykorzystaniem Szanghajskiej Organizacji Współpracy.

  • On the issue of international unity and synergy of the communist movement

    Author: Zbigniew Wiktor
    E-mail: z.wiktor@gazeta.pl
    Institution: Universoty of Wrocław
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 125-136
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020209
    PDF: rop/12/rop1209.pdf

    The subject of the analysis is the development of program and organizational changes in recent decades in Communist Party of China. In particular, the international context and potential opportunities for international cooperation of communist parties and the creation of a new global organization are considered. The publication also considers the historical background of the functioning of the Communist International. It is stated that Communist Party of China possess own independent way of building of socialism. Article main conclusion is that international communist movement should change its relations with the Communist Party of China and cooperate together.

  • Manifestations of Chinese Development Aid and Its Hidden Meanings

    Published online: 31 May 2021
    Final submission: 8 February 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Anna Kobierecka
    E-mail: anna.kobierecka@uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2492-6452
    Source: Show
    Page no: 15
    Pages: 9-23
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202101
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202101.pdf

    The People’s Republic of China is one of the states focusing intensively on building its soft power and shaping its international image. However, China’s image is still negative and primarily based on stereotypes. In recent years, this country is willing to change such perceptions and present itself as an efficient, intensively developing, capable country that is much more than just a global production plant. The article aims to review China’s different manifestations of development aid regarding changing this type of public diplomacy and its meaning to the Chinese government. Is it only motivated by good intentions, or maybe its goal is to only provide an advantage to China? It is evident that owing to significant development, China needs to expand its economic contacts. However, the tested hypothesis states that behind Chinese development aid, political motivation is hidden as well. The research is based on content analysis of official documents and Foreign Ministry’s statements referring to development aid.

  • Economic Sanctions as a Tool of China’s Hybrid Strategies

    Published online: 10 July 2021
    Final submission: 30 June 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Rafał Wiśniewski
    E-mail: rafal.wisniewski@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0155-246X
    Source: Show
    Page no: 13
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202133
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202133.pdf

    The article aims to analyze the role of economic sanctions in the People’s Republic of China’s overall approach to achieving its security objectives in the international arena. During the last two decades, Beijing used this instrument on numerous occasions to exert pressure on a varied group of actors. China’s current strategy toward a range of disputes and conflicts it is engaged in (the South China Sea territorial disputes most prominently stand out) is often described using the popular vocabulary of “hybrid warfare” or “grey zone conflicts”. Putting the conceptual complications aside, the author agrees that the PRC’s approach can be viewed as part of a growing trend for great powers to employ what can be called “hybrid strategies” toward its opponents. As part of a broader category of economic statecraft, economic sanctions form an important element of this approach. Considering current scholarship on both “hybrid” (or “grey area”) warfare and economic sanctions, the article answers the question of why the PRC increasingly resorts to hybrid strategies (including economic coercion) and identifies the main characteristics of Chinese economic sanctions. It also provides preliminary conclusions on their effectiveness.

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