philosophy

  • Philosophy and Politics in the Contemporary Age

    Author: Marek Szulakiewicz
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2012
    Source: Show
    Pages: 354-366
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012017
    PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012017.pdf

    Political wisdom, judgement or genius do not stem from the spirit of science and is not the upshot of theoretical generalizations or learning. There is of course “political science” and “political philosophy” but politicians can properly act without them because it is neither the discovery of laws or generalizations in the field of politics nor “knowledge about political things” but “political sense” that is crucial for his actions. As Isaiah Berlin put it years ago: “What makes statesmen, like drivers of cars, successful is that they do not think in general terms – that is, they do not primarily ask themselves in what respect a given situation is like or unlike other situations in the long course of human history (which is what historical sociologists, or theologians in historical clothing, such as Vico or Toynbee, are fond of doing). Their merit is that they grasp the unique combination of characteristics that constitute this particular situation – this and no other. What they are said to be able to do is to understand the character of particular movement, of a particular individual, of a unique state of affairs, of unique atmosphere, of some particular combination of economic, political, personal factors; and we do not readily suppose that this capacity can literally be taught”. Therefore politics is not a quest for “general terms” or general features of political phenomena but a direct and individual insight into concrete reality. Being a politician takes not learning but talent, not expertise but intuition, not knowledge but sense; it takes looking not at general but the particular dimension of human actions. Politicians can be taunted for their posture as Napoleon, they can be uneducated as farmer George Washington or act against morality as Cardinal Richelieu but frankly speaking all these vices are unimportant in the political realm.

  • Book review: Marek Szulakiewicz, “Dialogue and Metaphysics. In Search for the New First Philosophy”, Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, Toruń 2006, pp. 288

    Author: Łukasz Dominiak
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2007
    Source: Show
    Pages: 287-291
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2007021
    PDF: ppsy/36/ppsy2007021.pdf

    A serious disease of the contemporary world is a state of “the loss of being”. We started to see redundance of metaphysics as a result of reduction of reality to a physical dimension that had been made by positivism. There was no place for scientific discipline which subject had undergone destruction. Being was reduced to objects, to objectivity, to things which only appear to man. “is way we have lost the being, only objects have stayed, things which surrounded us (…) e true existence is confront with material existence.” The same vision of contemporary situation can be found among representatives of the “end of philosophy” discourse such as J.-F. Lyotard, G. Vattimo, O. Marquardt, R. Rorty, P. Laslett. 

  • The Universalistic Conception of The Civilization in The Social and Philosophical Thought of Pope John Paul II

    Author: Arkadiusz Modrzejewski
    Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2006
    Source: Show
    Pages: 33-42
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006003
    PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006003.pdf

    Karol Wojtyla (1920–2005), later to become Pope John Paul II (since 1978), was one of the greatest contemporary thinkers. He was a Christian philosopher and Catholic theologian. His thought exerted an in! uence on diverse generations and representatives of many cultures, religions and nations. He was an authority not only for Catholics but also for many infidels and even atheists. He often made controversies because of His firm opinions. He was an aim of liberal as well as conservative critique. The liberals criticized Him due to His uncompromising and conservative attitude to female priesthood, homosexuality, contraception and abortion. The conservatives accused Him of apologizing and conciliatory tone of His voice in relationships with other religions, especially with Jews and Muslims. Because these parts of His thought became most controversial, they were and usually are commented on and analysed by world mass media. But few people found Him a leading contemporary theoretician of civilization despite the fact that He constructed a coherent theory of civilization that is unfortunately distracted in His numerous papers. And my article is dedicated to this theory. I would like to present the core of His civilization’s conception.

  • Progresywne podejście Ericha Fromma do problemu ludzkiej egzystencji na tle psychoanalizy

    Author: Lidia Lipka
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 23-32
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201302
    PDF: ksm/18/ksm201302.pdf

    Goethe wrote: „Mankind walks steadily forward, but the person remains the same”. Customs as a normative tradition ways of behavior are the important social community and have the power to unwritten laws. Are primarily trans­mitted orally or by imitation, once established are very slow to change. The article discusses the problem of looking at the reality of the two opposite poles.

  • O istniejących i nieistniejących referentach nazwy własnej – antropocentryzm w onomastyce

    Author: Arkadiusz Matachowski
    Institution: Uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 155-170
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpom2018210
    PDF: tpom/28/tpom2810.pdf

    About existing and not existing referents of proper names – anthropocentrism in onomastics

    In the article the author widely covers the problem of names’ reference, especially proper names. The phenomenon of reference is discussed on the basis of Ogden/Richards triangle, showing the tri-elemental relation between the symbol, the concept and the referent. The author is pointing out the practice of inaccurate use of terms in the scientific discourse of research into reference and he sorts it out in the terminology by showing the difference between, among others, the reference, the designation and the denotation. The author’s considerations are full of examples which illustrate the essence of these terms and their relations. From the conclusion about the symbol and the concept he moves to the description of reality whose elements are the nominated objects. The extra-linguistic reality in which objects – capable of becoming the referents of various expressions – occur is described in accord with Kantian anthropocentric philosophical thought.

  • Przyszłość przez przeszłość – rola historii w koncepcji patriotyzmu konstytucyjnego Jürgena Habermasa

    Author: Mikołaj Raczyński
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 66-80
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201604
    PDF: siip/15/siip1504.pdf

    The future by the past: The role of history in the concept of constitutional patriotism of Jürgen Habermas

    The definition of patriotism is usually restricted to the conclusion that its aim is mere cultivation of the historical memory. However, patriotism has two distinct faces: one pointed at the past and the other focused on the present. What is more, in the opinion of many scholars, patriotism doesn’t need to be closely related to one nation or culture. An interesting concept of constitutional patriotism was developed by German historians and philosophers during the debate on national identity after World War II. Jürgen Habermas has been one of the founders of this project. According to the German philosopher, constitutional patriotism doesn’t mean just positivist constitutional acts, but some abstract forms, interpretations of a particular community. Such universal principles may be, for instance, procedures of sovereignty and liberal rights. The following article conveys arguments indicating that the role of history is very important in the concept of constitutional patriotism by Jürgen Habermas.

  • A partire da Hans-Georg Gadamer. La koiné, il ponte e le “due culture”

    Author: Lucio Saviani
    Institution: Società Filosofica Europea di Ricerca e Alti Studi
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 255-268
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/IW.2014.05.11
    PDF: iw/05/iw511.pdf

    STARTING FROM HANS-GEORG GADAMER. THE “KOINÉ” AND THE BRIDGE BETWEEN TWO CULTURES

    The following contribution starts out going through the pages where Hans Georg Gadamer recalls his early youth and his first university studies in Breslavia. In those pages Gadamer emphasizes more than once a particular “foundational” exigence, the need “to throw a bridge”, to articulate in new terms the dialogue between humanistic tradition and positive sciences. That fundamental exigence “to throw a bridge” of a new relationship with scientific knowledge is one of the essential features of contemporary hermeneutics. Italy was the first country to publish the first translation of Gadamer’s main work, Wahrheit und Methode. And in Italy alone, in last year’s philosophical debate around the hermeneutic koiné finds in the relationship with science (natural sciences, scientific knowledge) as it has been interpreted by hermeneutics so far, and in the exigency to finally reformulate that relationship in less “aesthetical-metaphysical” terms, the place where hermeneutics may recognize its own nihilistic sense: to correspond to the becoming (flowing) of nihilism, that is of modernity, means first of all to mark the distance from the attitudes that hermeneutic philosophers have so far had with regard to the positive sciences.

  • Il Logos della Croce

    Author: Giovanni Ferraro
    Institution: Società Filosofica Europea di Ricerca e Alti Studi
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 269-283
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/IW.2014.05.12
    PDF: iw/05/iw512.pdf

    LOGOS OF THE CROSS

    The existential story of Edith Stein is characterized by the pursuit of truth and by placing herself at its service. Starting from the philosophical discourse she reaches the word of the cross, the Logos of the analogy that relates separate determinations. Going through the various stations of her Way of the Cross in order to achieve her union with the Beloved, Edith Stein realizes the commandment of love: donate life to “save” forever every existence.

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