• Some Reflections on the Theory of Hybrid Activities

    Author: Benon Zbigniew Szałek
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-17
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.68.01
    PDF: apsp/68/apsp6801.pdf

    This paper presents some remarks on the theory of hybrid activities. Analysis of relevant texts indicates that at present there is no real theory of hybrid activities. Interpretations and definitions of hybrid activities differ to some extent and certain important features are missing. For example, some authors opine that hybrid activities consist of simultaneous military and non-military operations. This opinion is not necessarily true as non-military activities can precede military activities. Monitoring this phase of hybrid activities is particularly important. The so-called “crisis management” covers (from the viewpoint of praxeology) a too narrow area.

  • Peaceful Ways of Solving International Disputes by the Mediation Method and Legal Security of State

    Author: Marcin Jurgilewicz
    E-mail: m.jurgilewicz@prz.edu.pl
    Institution: Rzeszow University of Technology
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2243-2165
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 317-329
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.26
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5826.pdf

    Nowadays, international disputes appear in the public space, which results, for example, from the fact that the needs are unlimited and the goods are limited. Due to its specific nature, the international environment requires a compromise between the entities operating in it. A desirable direction in case of conflicts between international entities is to resolve them by peaceful means. In the international environment, one of the largest international organizations - the United Nations - is of great significance, especially in the field of maintaining international order and peace. In turn, according to the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, it is possible to resolve international disputes by peaceful means, and among the characteristic methods used in this type of proceedings is the mediation method, the effectiveness of which allows, in the long term, to maintain the desired state of peace, strengthening the legal security of the state.

  • The Constitution as the Basis for Strategic Principles of a Strategic Leader in the Chaos of Conflict

    Author: Maciej Milczanowski
    E-mail: mmilczanowski@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2322-2074
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 593-601
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.48
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5848.pdf

    The Constitution - the Basic Law is the foundation of the organization in a given country. It defines the general principles of the functioning of internal relations, the competences of its most important elements, and the fundamental rights and freedoms of a person and a citizen2. And the strategy can be perceived as the general outlines of the actions of competent leaders determining the far-reaching aim. It is characterized by a long-term strategic perspective, combining the set of with the strive for solutions that are beneficial not only for themselves, their surroundings, and supporters but also for the paradigm of the common good. Societies during, or immediately after the conflict, seek stabilization. That can be ensured by actions based on a strategy that takes into account the fundamental principles of internal relations. Combining those two paradigms, the Constitution, taking into account the rights of minorities, guaranteeing civil liberties and human rights, may be the basic factor of the strategy of the competent leader, aiming to post-conflict stabilization.

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