Polish foreign policy

  • Securitization of Past: Analysis of the Katyń Issue in the Context of EU Integration

    Author: Olga Sebina
    Institution: Jilin University (China)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 45-59
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016004
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016004.pdf

    This paper provides a theoretical explanation of what causes historical issues to impact bilateral relations between two states. The case which was chosen for analysis – popularly known as the Katyń issue – involves changes in Polish foreign policy towards the Russian Federation due to the remembrance of the Katyń Massacre. The main assumptions are based on the concept of securitization and its analytical framework, particularly the societal portion, which is proposed by the Copenhagen School of security study. The process of European integration can be seen as the main causal factor leading to a complex of vertical and horizontal competition between Poland, the EU, and Russia over the construction of their historical identities with a referent object of securitization in Poland. The main conclusion of this paper suggests that significant differences in the understanding of various nations’ roles in WW2 between the EU and Russia have led to the securitization of the Polish historical image of WW2. The Polish audience considered it important to accept the historical truth. The Katyń issue in Polish–Russian relations has become a case that reflects the process which leads to securitization of disputes between historical victims and victimizers on a state–to–state level. 

  • Parisian Culture's Views on Eastern Europe as a Factor in Contemporary Polish Foreign Policy

    Author: Iwona Hofman
    Institution: Marie Curie-Skłodowska University of Lublin (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2005
    Source: Show
    Pages: 77-86
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2005007
    PDF: ppsy/34/ppsy2005007.pdf

    When analyzing events which unfolded in the Ukraine during the final months of 2004 and the involvement of Polish politicians and public opinion in the struggle for the preservation of the democratic character of presidential elections, a question arises regarding the connection of their actions with the political projects of Jerzy Giedroyć, the founder and sole editor of an influential magazine and a centre of political thought, which was Culture, published in Maisons-Laffitte, near Paris, in the years 1947–2000. Historians and political scientists rightly emphasize the fact that the „Eastern doctrine”, also known as the ULB doctrine (from the abbreviation of „Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus”), has been a constant element of Polish foreign policy since 1989. Generally speaking, Giedroyć was convinced that nationalist impulses would eventually destroy the Russian empire from within, and a sovereign Poland would gain three new neighbours in the East: Ukraine, Lithuania and Belarus. This process was expected to take place in the near future, as foreseen by Culture contributors who called on the émigrés from Eastern Europe to work together in laying solid foundations for the future partnership.

  • Challenges and Perspectives of Polish Foreign Policy Towards the Post-Yugoslav Region

    Author: Renata Podgórzańska
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 178-197
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201311
    PDF: rop/2013/rop201311.pdf

    In the new, post-Cold War reality Polish foreign policy faced challenges stemming from the need to set targets that would reflect the interests of Poland, as well as take into account the changes in the international environment. Gradually, the assumptions and directions of foreign policy were rebuilt, with an aim to ensure the safety of the country in both internal and external dimension, to provide the territorial integrity, strengthen the sovereignty and create optimal conditions for the development of the state and society. After 1989, as a consequence of the concentration of efforts of Polish diplomacy on the implementation of strategic directions of foreign policy, others had a secondary meaning. Polish vital interests were located in the Euro-Atlantic area, in the immediate vicinity, as well as in Central and Eastern Europe, which is why in the first place all strengths and resources were engaged there in order to implement the strategic tasks of foreign policy; the Western Balkans remained on the sidelines, in the territory of former Yugoslavia. Nevertheless, this did not mean the total marginalization of the post- -Yugoslav region, and the perception of the events associated with the disintegration of the Yugoslav federation as not directly, but only indirectly connected with Polish interests.

  • The Eastern Dimension of the EU’s and Poland’s Policy

    Author: Tetiana Sydoruk
    Institution: National University of Ostroh Academy
    Author: Dmytro Tyshchenko
    Institution: University of Lisbon
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 209–220
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.52.12
    PDF: apsp/52/apsp5212.pdf

    The article seeks to assess the degree to which Poland exercises power and influence in the Eastern policy of the European Union (EU) from the early 21st century until now, focusing on the attributes of Poland’s latest contribution to the EU policies – the Eastern Partnership (EaP). The article examines also challenges and discussions on Polish strategy towards Eastern Europe. The authors prove that the main points of Poland’s Eastern policy are that the improper attention to it will result in loss of status positions in the international arena; Poland should not be limited by the role of the architect artist in Franco-German project in Europe; European perspective is the only incentive that can encourage the reforms in Eastern Europe; the failure to provide such a perspective would lead to social and economic instability in the region and the drift towards the participation in reintegration projects in post-Soviet space with Moscow; the Eastern Partnership should be considered as a step towards the joining the EU; Europe will take Poland into consideration only as a regional leader; Russian neo-imperialism is a challenge for Poland’s security and needs a strict reaction.

  • Geopolitical Imagination of the Political Elites of the Third Polish Republic: An Outline of the Problem

    Author: Jarosław Macała
    Institution: University of Zielona Góra
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 62-79
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.64.04
    PDF: apsp/64/apsp6404.pdf

    The article deals with the issue of the development of geopolitical imagination of Polish political elites following 1989. The source database of the text are the most important official documents regarding the foreign policy of the Third Polish Republic: the policy statements of subsequent prime ministers and the so-called small policy statements of the ministers of foreign affairs. Discourse analysis and system analysis were used to analyse them, treating them as a social construct. Geopolitical imagination placed Poland in Europe, in the dangerous zone between Germany and Russia and on the border of the two civilizations. The escape from this “fatalism of geography” was the main goal of the elites of the Third Polish Republic. Hence the orientation towards the West, to ensure the exit from peripherality, security and development. To justify such a remodelling of their representations, the elites put forward an idealized image of the West. It facilitated the acceptance of the geopolitical choice made by the society and the associated severe limitation of Poland’s geopolitical and economic autonomy. The vehicles on the way to the West were bandwagoning towards the USA and Germany, which justified clientelism towards them. In various combinations, the representations about Poland’s key role in the post-communist region re-emerged following 1989 to strengthen its position in relation to the West and the East. As for the eastern direction, Poland’s goal was to move the imaginary borders of the West towards our eastern neighbours, mainly Belarus and Ukraine. This must have led to the negative reaction from Russia, which considered this area its sphere of influence. Russia was imagined by us to be an alien and enemy, and the change of this state of affairs would be a consequence of the Westernisation of Russia so desired by the Polish elites. It seems that in the years 1989–2015, one could speak of a certain interpretative community, which the LaJ (Law and Justice/Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) governments broke down following 2015. The LaJ foreign policy has become a hostage of those undermining the liberal democracy of internal political system changes. Their criticism in the EU states isolates and pushes towards servility to Washington. In turn, the Three Seas Initiative is too divided and weak to leverage Poland’s position. It seems that re-approaching the EU’s core may give us some freedom and better protection in external policy.

  • Selected Forms of Activity of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Sejm and the Main Directions of Polish Foreign Policy

    Author: Piotr Pochyły
    Institution: University of Zielona Góra
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 178-197
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.71.11
    PDF: apsp/71/apsp7111.pdf

    The article analyzes selected activities of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in connection with the main directions of Polish foreign policy. For the purpose of consideration of the thesis, it was assumed that the Foreign Affairs Committee has a complementary/supplementary role in the control of the directions of Polish foreign policy, and in Poland there was a balance between executive and legislative power in this area. The research problem was to determine the scale of the Committee’s interest in world events through a specific response and to define the specific geographic area that would result from this activity. The method of quantitative analysis was used, PS Imago Pro 7.0 program was used for the research. The result of the research allowed to draw conclusions that the Committee’s interest of opinion-forming and intervention through the publication of statements, as well as formulating recommendations in the vast majority is manifested in relation to the most important issues in the immediate environment of Poland: Belarus, the situation of Poles in Lithuania, the events in the Caucasus, which is consistent with the basic directions of Polish foreign policy.

  • Polska polityka zagraniczna w propagandzie „sektora robotniczego” Obozu Zjednoczenia Narodowego (1937–1939)

    Author: Grzegorz Zackiewicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9726-7163
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-25
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/acno2021101
    PDF: acno/10/acno202101.pdf

    Polish foreign policy in the propaganda of the „workers sector” of the National Unification Party (1937–1939)

    The presented article is a contribution to the history of the propaganda of the ruling camp in Poland in the last years before the outbreak of World War II. At that time, international issues became particularly topical and important, which of course was directly related to the dynamically changing political situation in Europe. They were reflected, among others in the propaganda of pro-government trade unions mentioned in the text.

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