The study is a presentation - in an essayistic and exemplary approach - of the meandering history of multiculturalism and multinationalism in Poland. This history until 1918 is described in two dimensions - firstly, a rather peculiar and in fact harmful multiculturalism of rulers’ world (mostly foreign election kings and later aggressors) and, secondly, the developing, increasingly richer and introducing important values, multiculturalism of people. This is followed by an outline of the changes after 1918 (mostly the crisis of the multinational state), as well as after 1945 and 1989 - the birth of a national state in two different political systems. The recent years are the times of drifting apart from a pro-European (open to multiculturalism) state in favour of a state and a substantial part of the society which is increasingly less democratic and contests European and global problems. This constitutes the background for the discussed issues of multicultural education. What has been also considered is the (developed in Poland) concept and practice of intercultural education. Intercultural education seems to enhance in the best way the familiarization with and understanding of Others and, in consequence, the shaping of positive relations among people.