Polska

  • Czechoznawstwo polskie-charakter i sens jednego kierunku badawczego

    Author: Jaroslav Pánek
    E-mail: panek@hiu.cas.cz
    Institution: Akademie věd České republiky
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 99-113
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso170106
    PDF: hso/12/hso1206.pdf

    The position of Poland and Czechia in contemporary Europe, their mutual relations and significance of the areal studies in Central Europe. Czech Lands in comparative history of Central European macroregion in European and American historiographies, and a special position of the Polish research attitude. The asymmetry of the Polish studies in Czechia and the Czech studies in Poland. Scholars, essayists, and churchmen in the capacity of interpreters of the Czech issues. The national heterostereotypes in an interdiciplinary research and their role in social relations.

  • Research and education in Slavonic studies in Poland-past and present

    Author: Krzysztof A. Makowski
    E-mail: makmak@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 88-98
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso170405
    PDF: hso/15/hso1505.pdf

    The article shows the three aspects of research on the history of Slavonic studies in Poland: the developmental trends in Polish historiography, the scale of interest in the Slavs living in Poland and the position of the other Slavic nations in the Polish historiography.

  • Prusy, Rzesza i Mitteleuropa. Wokół niemieckiego tła Aktu 5 listopada 1916 r.

    Author: Grzegorz Kucharczyk
    Institution: Polska Akademia Nauk
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 29-41
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso170202
    PDF: hso/13/hso1302.pdf

    The article discusses the German background of a declaration of Two Emperors of 5th November 1916. The author presents the interactions between the specific political centres in Germany which were a part of the decision-making with regard to the Polish cause. In the article, attention is drawn to the complexity of the process and the lack of unity between the German and Prussian decision makers.

  • KONSEKWENTNE DZIAŁANIA CZY IMPROWIZACJA? NIEMIECKIE PLANY WOJENNE WOBEC POLSKI W OKRESIE I WOJNY ŚWIATOWEJ

    Author: RAFAŁ ŁYSOŃ
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 150-167
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso150208
    PDF: hso/9/hso908.pdf

    The article discusses the issue of German war plans for Poland during the First World War. The author analyses the role and activities of various political centres in Germany pertaining to the Polish cause. The article seeks to assess whether German plans for Poland were as coherent and consistent as they were presented in earlier historiography.

  • The Influence of Catholic Interest Groups in Poland on Draft Legislation Concerning Civil Unions (2011–2014)

    Author: Krzysztof Kowalczyk
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 156-168
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.63.10
    PDF: apsp/63/apsp6310.pdf

    The main purpose of this article is to demarcate the influence of Catholic interest groups in Poland on the attempts to introduce legislation that would regulate the legal status of civil unions. Catholic interest groups are defined as an association of individuals, organisations or institutions which articulate postulates of the Catholic Church. In order to fulfil their agendas, these groups, especially pro-life groups, apply various methods of lobbying, persuasion or moral sanction. The article includes the author’s own typology of influence of these groups on political institutions and their environment. Selected methods of influence were applied during debates in the Sejm on the draft bills concerning legalization of civil unions, including those between people of the same sex. Catholic interest groups opposed those regulations.

  • The Objectives and Tasks of the Internal Historical Politics Imposed by the Law and Justice Party in the Years 2005–2007

    Author: Konrad Słowiński
    Institution: The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 185-198
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.63.12
    PDF: apsp/63/apsp6312.pdf

    The article deals with the issue of the internal historical politics of Law and Justice party (PiS) during their years of power in 2005–2007. From the very beginning, the party put an extreme importance to the issue of patriotism and national memory, making them one of their main objectives. With the inception of power in 2005, the leaders of this group clearly declared that the important goal of their actions would be to restore historical memory, which was to be initiated by the “new historical politics”. When analyzing the historical policy pursued by Law and Justice in the internal dimension, it should be noted that it focused on several key elements. The first of them was building patriotic attitudes among the Polish society. The historical settlement of the communist times became the second goal of the party’s historical politics. The past has begun to be used by the leaders of this formation also to stigmatize political opponents. Moreover, it served as an effective tool to both Kaczyński brothers for mobilizing their own supporters.

  • Wpływ unii personalnej z Saksonią na funkcjonowanie systemu parlamentarnego Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów

    Author: Michał Zwierzykowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6419-3222
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 98-111
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso200106
    PDF: hso/24/hso2406.pdf

    This article attempts to provide answers to several research questions related to the consequences of representatives of the House of Wettin ruling the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to the country’s state organisation, with special emphasis placed on its parliamentary system.

  • Verfassungsdurchbrechung or Informal Constitutional Change. The Polish Experience

    Author: Agnieszka Bień-Kacała
    E-mail: abien@umk.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9559-3130
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 29-47
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.02
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5702.pdf

    The author assesses constitutional practice after 2015 in Poland in the context of constitutional changes, and indicates that no formal change has occurred. Instead, she is considering qualifying the actions of the ruling majority as Verfassungsdurchbrechung, an institution known from the political practice of the Weimar Republic. However, she concludes that an informal constitutional change is a more appropriate institution to describe the political reality in Poland. The author shows practices that can be qualified in this way (reinterpretation and interpretation of the text of the constitution by the CT, creation of competences unknown to the constitution by the legislature and the executive power, emptying of the text of the constitution). Furthermore, these practices also step beyond a simple violation of the constitution, as they aim to build a new system (illiberal constitutionalism).

  • Legal Regulation of Lobbying in Poland: Key Issues

    Author: Rafał Willa
    E-mail: rafalw@umk.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1373-3823
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 245-254
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.18
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5718.pdf

    What proves to be characteristic of the democratic system is the fact that it constantly witnesses various tensions between authorities, opposition, citizens, diverse legal subjects, advocacy groups, etc. Their disputes concern changing or upholding the existing legal environment, which is unavoidable in this case. This situation is not surprising or improper as lobbying understood in this way is an immanent, often useful part of the system. However, what may be puzzling is the fact that democratic political systems are characterized by the variety of attitudes adopted by authorities toward the practice - from pretending it does not exist (and thus requires no regulations) to implementing regulations of a highly general nature. Poland experiences both the practice itself and the attempts to legally regulate it. The aim of the article is to critically analyze the existing situation.

  • Poland’s policy on Czechoslovakia in 1938 and plans of creating the so-called “Third Europe”

    Author: Andrzej Essen
    E-mail: fil@ares.pl
    Institution: Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Wschodnioeuropejska w Przemyślu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2055-9058
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 38-50
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso200403
    PDF: hso/27/hso2703.pdf

    The article presents Poland’s foreign policy towards Czechoslovakia during the crisis of 1938 against the background of Polish plans in Central Europe aimed at inhibiting the growth of influence of the Third Reich and the Soviet Union in this area.

  • Closely watched soldiers. Repatriation of soldiers of the Polish 2nd Corps via Czechoslovakia in 1945

    Author: Jiří Friedl
    E-mail: friedl@brno.avcr.cz
    Institution: Akademie věd České republiky
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5164-1682
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 80-100
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso200405
    PDF: hso/27/hso2705.pdf

    The article deals with the repatriation of Polish soldiers from Italy to Poland and is based on Czech archival documents which have not been researched before. It reveals the Czechoslovak authorities’ attitude towards the repatriation of the soldiers.

  • Election Silence in the New Media. The Question of Whether Election Silence is Justified in the Era of New Media in the Context of Public Opinion Polls

    Author: Magdalena Musiał-Karg
    E-mail: magdalena.musial-karg@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6089-1381
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 19-31
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.01
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5801.pdf

    Election silence is a legally determined period that typically begins directly before Election Day and lasts until the voting comes to an end. During the election silence, it is forbidden to conduct “any form of electoral agitation aimed at promoting a particular candidate, list of candidates or electoral committees participating in the election among voters”. Due to the rapid development of new media, particularly the Internet, many experts argue that in the age of digital media it is no longer enforceable. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to answer the question of whether or not it is justified to retain the current regulations on election silence. These considerations are supported by quantitative surveys conducted by the author, as well as the survey realized by the Public Opinion Research Center (CBOS).

  • The Specificity of the Constitutionalization Process of Systemic Changes in Poland During the Period of Transformations

    Author: Bożena Dziemidok-Olszewska
    E-mail: bozena.dziemidok-olszewska@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl
    Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2944-5073
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 115-126
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.08
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5808.pdf

    The aim of the article is to indicate the prevalent features of the Polish process of constitutional and systemic changes in Poland in 1989-1997. It was assumed that the Polish process of constitutionalization was characterized by a number of specific features which were interrelated and dependent on each another. The aim of the paper is to recognize the phased character of the changes as the first feature of the political transformation process in Poland, whereas compromise should be regarded as its basic attribute. Other specific features (presented in the subsequent parts of the article) include: evolutionary, temporary, and pragmatic nature of the process.

  • Admissibility of Remote Deliberation and Voting in the Polish Parliament. The Functioning of the Sejm and Senate During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Author: Radosław Grabowski
    E-mail: rgrabowski@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3362-7363
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 149-158
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.11
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5811.pdf

    The dynamic development of the COVID-19 epidemic hampered the functioning of administrative bodies, especially those consisting of many people. In 2020, many countries had to solve the problem of how to adapt their laws to the requirements of the pandemic, while maintaining the safety requirements of members of parliaments. The introduced solutions included suspending the proceedings, modifying the quorum, or changing the voting method. Few countries (including Poland) have fully used the available technologies, deciding to allow parliaments to hold and vote remotely. The conducted analysis is aimed at identifying the systemic solutions that made it possible to introduce such solutions, as well as at determining what modifications of the legal system were necessary to establish innovative solutions.

  • Proposals for Constitutional Changes in the Presidential Election Campaign in Poland in 2020

    Author: Dominik Szczepański
    E-mail: szczepanski@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9026-1447
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 191-201
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.15
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5815.pdf

    The article discusses the proposals for changing the constitution, which were officially presented during the presidential election campaign in Poland in 2020. The article consists of two main parts. The first part focuses on the presented proposals of laws concerning the regulation in question, while the second focuses on the postulates resulting from the activity of candidates running for the office of President in Poland in 2020.

  • Zasada one-in, one-out jako granica ingerencji ustawodawczej w sferę wolności działalności gospodarczej

    Author: Marta Anna Gontarz-Dobrowolska
    E-mail: m.gontarz.dobrowolska@ gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5976-0528
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 231-247
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.03.15
    PDF: ppk/61/ppk6115.pdf

    The One-in, One-out Principle as the Limit of Legislative Interference into the Sphere of Freedom of Economic Activity

    The article deals with the issue of the limit of legislative interference in the sphere of freedom of economic activity, defined by the one-in, one-out principle, introduced at the turn of 2010 and 2011 in Great Britain, in relation to the issue of restricting the freedom of economic activity in the light of art. 22 and art. 31 s. 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997.

  • Czym były elity społeczne wczesnego średniowiecza? Próba zdefiniowania świeckiego możnowładztwa polskiego pierwszej połowy XII w.

    Author: Eduard Mühle
    E-mail: muehleed@uni-muenster.de
    Institution: Historisches Seminar Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 65-83
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso210103
    PDF: hso/28/hso2803.pdf

    The article explores how the comes Piotr Włostowic fits into a set of criteria (such as distinguished descent; a considerable material wealth; participation in royal/ducal power; a disposition over Church offices and/or a special dedication to Church matters) defining high medieval Polish nobility.

  • Ziemie nadbużańskie w pamięci polskich i ruskich kronikarzy XII–XIII w.

    Author: Mariusz Bartnicki
    E-mail: mbartnicky@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9021-359X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 84-103
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso210104
    PDF: hso/28/hso2804.pdf

    The article deals with the issue of the Polish-Ruthenian part of the Bug river in the Middle Ages and is an attempt to explain how the area was perceived by inhabitants of the two neighboring countries.

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