polskie partie polityczne

  • Polish Geopolitical Codes Illustrated with the Example of the Electoral Programs of the Major Political Parties in 1991 – 2011

    Author: Jarosław Macała
    Institution: University of Zielona Góra
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-20
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2017.56.01
    PDF: apsp/56/apsp5601.pdf

    This article is concerned with the research on Polish geopolitical codes following 1989. The problem has not yet been the subject of broader scientific studies or publications. In this aspect, the research is of particular importance for the analysis of foreign policy of Poland, which had to redefine its place in Europe and to fundamentally rebuild external relations, that is also to define the new geopolitical codes. The code system used in this text is based on Colin Flint’s definition, with the key division into allies and enemies. Based on the analysis of discourse, it can be stated that the most important allies of Poland in these codes are the USA, the European Union, Germany, and the enemy is Russia. In general, the fundamental change of Poland’s geopolitical codes following 1989 – from the east side to the west – can quite easily be seen in the electoral programs: the enemies of the People’s Republic of Poland’s period became allies, and the forced ally became an enemy. However, their concretization is generally not original and rather schematic. The Polish geopolitical codes have been exerted with strong influences of the hegemonic geopolitical codes of the West, mainly those of the United States. On the other hand, the last geopolitical code, the attempt to explain to the public the geopolitical imaginations of our elites, has been the weakest. This largely confirms the authoritarian dimension of Polish top-down transformation as well as the dominance of the elites over the society.

  • Cultural Security in the Political Programmes of the Law and Justice

    Author: Arkadiusz Lewandowski
    Institution: The State University of Applied Sciences in Płock
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 21-35
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2017.56.02
    PDF: apsp/56/apsp5602.pdf

    The present paper raises the issue of cultural security in the programme-related ideas conceived by Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (hereinafter referred to as the Law and Justice or – to use an abbreviated term – PiS) in 21st century. In the present paper, the issues related to national identity and national culture were scrutinized, the former and the latter being two constituents of cultural security of the state.
    Political programmes of the Law and Justice specified mainly the dangers to national identity in the context of European integration and of striving for the unification of European culture. On the other hand, in the realm of national culture, what was noticed was the phenomenon of neglecting the said issue and not considering it important from the point of view of security of the state.

  • Pozawyborcze zadania Państwowej Komisji Wyborczej

    Author: Ryszard Balicki
    E-mail: ryszard.balicki@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9192-908X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 95-109
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.02.06
    PDF: ppk/60/ppk6006.pdf

    Non-electoral tasks of the National Electoral Commission

    Apart from its main functions connected with preparing and holding elections, the Na- tional Electoral Commission has to fulfill many other tasks entrusted to it both by the Election Code and by many other acts. Therefore, we can divide these tasks into two cat- egories: the tasks of an electoral nature and the tasks of a non-electoral nature. The arti- cle presents the tasks carried out by the National Electoral Commission in the non-elec- toral sphere. Among them there are also particularly significant issues connected with financing the politics, both in terms of considering the reports of political parties and electoral committees. The wide scope of tasks performed by the National Electoral Com- mission, including those that have a direct impact on the shaping of Polish democrat- ic system substantiate the thesis about the necessity of constitutionalization of the Na- tional Electoral Commission.

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