• Rozwój lokalnych i odnawialnych źródeł energii na Białorusi stan obecny i perspektywy

    In 2010, Byelorussia undertook an ambitious plan to reduce dependence of its energy sector on supplies of Russian energy sources. In accordance with the adapter concept, participation of local fuels in the country’s energy balance is to increase from 20.7% in 2010 to 32% in 2020. Implementation of the strategy for increasing participation of local and renewable energy sources in the country’s energy and fuel balance encounters numerous problems. Insufficient financial resources, corruption scandals in the background, and problems with finding foreign investors seem to jeopardise chances for implementation of the government strategy concerning the renewable energy sources. Thus, Byelorussia will still remain a country strongly dependant on supplies of Russian natural gas.

  • Perspektywy modernizacji białoruskiej energetyki w latach 2011–2016

    The paper attempts to estimate chances for modernisation of the Byelorussian Energy system in the years 2011–2016. In accordance with the government strategy, in 2015 Byelorussia is to become an energy independent country. The ambitious government plan provides for modernisation of several tens of power facilities. It also aims at reducing the dependence of the domestic energy sector on Russian energy sources. However, the modernisation plans of the energy system include a significant risk, as their financing largely depends on obtaining foreign loans. The current implementation rate of the government strategy indicates that chances for modernising the outdated Byelorussian energy system are small. Only commissioning of a nuclear power plant will end Byelorussian problems with electric power shortages.

  • Wszechobecność władzy i postawa krytyczna. Inspiracje myślą Michela Foucaulta dla politologii

    Artykuł przywołuje filozofię władzy Michela Foucaulta i pokazuje, jak może ona zainspirować polską politologię do przyjęcia innego podejścia do badania władzy. Autor wskazuje, jak Foucault analizował historyczne praktyki i techniki władzy „produkujące” podmiotowość i tożsamość jednostek. W takim ujęciu władza nie może być pojmowana jako własność jakiejś konkretnej osoby, grupy ludzi czy instytucji, ale jako pewnego rodzaju strategia działania. Autor ukazuje też, na czym może polegać zainspirowana myślą Michela Foucaulta formuła krytyki akademickiej, stanowiącej etos i określoną postawę badawczą.

  • The Concept of “International Role” in International Relations Theory and Practice: The “PIPP” Analytical Model and Roles Actors Play in World Politics

    Although a current and marketable term in the literature and political discourses, the notion of ‘international role’ still lacks a clear and succinct, let alone consensually applicable, definition. This article posits that, from the actorness perspective as a point of departure, the concept of “international role” may well be assessed through the lenses of the quad-element “PIPP” analytical model, which is herewith developed. Thereby, the analysis of actor’s international role has to make a long conceptual sojourn from power, influence presence to performance (PIPP). These four embedded concepts (PIPP model) help assess the explanandum, i.e. “actor’s international role”, in a theoretically-informed, systematic and holistic way, thus avoiding the pitfalls of sporadic (mis) usage found in common parlance.

  • Socjotechnicze aspekty personalizacji polityki


    An issue of interest is the process of personalization of politics. I am going to examine it from the point of view of social engineering. There is no doubt that we can find many things in common between social engineering and personalization. Personalization is a broader syndrome of traits that can be reduced to a change in the nature of leadership in democracy, especially in campaign. As one might expect cause of this state of affairs, on the one hand it is still a growing number of those who serve as prime minister on the basis of “presidential style of administration”, on the other hand – the actual (institutional) changes in parliamentary systems.


    The text analyses the problem of the sanctity of rulers, especially non-martyrs, in Latin Europe in the Early and High Middle Ages. The starting point for this discussion is a frequently asked question about the reasons for the lack of such a phenomenon in Poland.

  • Władza polityczna w nauczaniu papieża Benedykta XVI

    Przedmiot niniejszego artykułu stanowi nauczanie społeczne Kościoła katolickiego ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem interpretacji i wkładu weń papieża Benedykta XVI. Autor pragnie dokonać rekonstrukcji stanowiska papieża Benedykta odnośnie władzy politycznej. W ramach artykułu autor analizuje sposób, w jaki zjawisko władzy politycznej interpretowane jest w katolickiej nauce społecznej oraz sposób, w jaki papież Benedykt XVI interpretował i rozwijał nauczanie Kościoła dotyczące tej problematyki. Dodatkowo rozbudowany został fragment dotyczący stosunku Benedykta XVI do systemu politycznego demokracji.

  • Power Analysis and Geopolitical Codes of South China Sea States in the Context of Contemporary Geopolitics

    The analysis in this article provides an overview of the research on the current relations among countries of the South China Sea basin. For this purpose, I have decided to apply the geopolitical research workshop, focusing on its contemporary approach. On the one hand, this work uses the available indicators and index to gauge the level of development, economic and demographic potential, and military expenditure of these states. On the other hand, an effort was made to analyze and measure power, taking into account the changing geopolitical status of countries in this sub-region.
    Contemporary geopolitics in this context allows to verify the scale of the impact on permanent environmental and geographic factors (e.g. publicized investments carried out by the People’s Republic of China in Mischief Reef, Fiery Cross, Subi Reef and Woody Island) and the elaboration of proposals going beyond the classical, geopolitical framework (morphological, political and military factors). Therefore, this article also includes the use of geopolitical codes to assess the current strategies of these countries and to describe potential scenarios of actors’ behaviour in the sub-region.

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