prawa człowieka

  • Konstytucyjny obowiązek przestrzegania prawa a obywatelskie nieposłuszeństwo

    Author: Halina Zięba Załucka
    E-mail: hzalucka@onet.eu
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1646-3141
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 241-257
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.02.13
    PDF: ppk/54/ppk5413.pdf

    Article 83 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland states that “Everyone is obliged to obey the law of the Republic of Poland”. The obligation to obey the law cannot, howev- er, imply absolute obedience to any law established by the state. That means that no state has the authority to violate human rights, because they are above the state law. There - fore, as the author stresses, in every modern constitution the right of sovereignty to de- fend values such as sovereignty, division of powers or human rights is guaranteed. The main thesis of the article indicates that a bad law may be the beginning of civil disobe- dience, understood as a symbolic, intentional manifestation of disobedience to the law carried out in the name of the conviction of its validity and superiority of other values and non-legal norms, including the possibility of incurring negative legal consequenc- es – sanctions. Civil insubordination is therefore an instrument which, taking into ac- count all its limitations, can be used in countries with democratic systems as a guaran- tee of protection of civil rights against the action of the authorities. Our constitution does not know the concept of civil disobedience or the older right of resistance. In Article 2 it is clearly emphasized that the Republic of Poland is a demo- cratic legal state and the observance of the law should be understood as such conduct of citizens. and state bodies, which is in accordance with the binding regulations (Article 7 of the Constitution – the principle of legalism). Another issue raised in the article is the problem of justification of civil disobedien- ce. The author does not share the view on the justification of civil disobedience. If the justification of civil insubordination entails the postulate of impunity, the concept of ci- vil disobedience would become contradictory. At the same time he stresses that legalism cannot dictate absolute obedience to the existing law.

  • Kryteria zgłaszania kandydatów w wyborach w systemie ochrony praw człowieka Rady Europy. Rozważania na kanwie wyroku ETPC Tahirov przeciwko Azerbejdżanowi

    Author: Marcin Jastrzębski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 57-73
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.65.04
    PDF: apsp/65/apsp6504.pdf

    Niniejszy artykuł zawiera szeroką analizę problemu kryteriów zgłaszania kandydatów w wyborach w systemie ochrony praw Rady Europy ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wyroku Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka w sprawie Tahirov przeciwko Azerbejdżanowi. Podstawowe badania obejmą przede wszystkim orzecznictwo organów międzynarodowych chroniących prawa jednostki, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Europejskiego Trybunału i Komisji Praw Człowieka Rady Europy, oraz raporty misji obserwujących wybory OBWE.

  • Theoretical and pedeutological research output for inclusive education in the multicultural world

    Author: Bronislava Kasáčová
    Institution: Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 117-126
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2019.02.07
    PDF: em/11/em1107.pdf

    W artykule zaprezentowano główne teoretyczne i socjopolityczne argumenty tworzące tło dla inkluzji edukacyjnej. Uwypuklono w tym zakresie niektóre ważne zagadnienia związane z implementacją idei inkluzji w edukacji na gruncie humanistycznym i demokratycznym. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na tzw. kluczowe kompetencje nauczycieli jako uczestników edukacji włączającej, a także na wymagania wobec personelu zarządzającego instytucjami oświatowymi. Artykuł prezentuje pewne sposoby rozwiązywania problemów w przyszłości, głównie poprzez edukację i szkolenie nauczycieli.

  • Prawa człowieka – religia obywatelska Zachodu. Perspektywa Europejskiej Nowej Prawicy

    Author: Paweł Bielawski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 138-149
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.66.09
    PDF: apsp/66/apsp6609.pdf

    Tematem artykułu są prawa człowieka w perspektywie Europejskiej Nowej Prawicy (ENP). Alain de Benoist (główny ideolog) uważa, że prawa człowieka stały się religią obywatelską Zachodu, która zastąpiła chrześcijaństwo w zlaicyzowanej przestrzeni publicznej, stając się głównym, ideologicznych punktem odniesienia Zachodu. Artykuł omawia chrześcijańską genezę praw człowieka i krytykę praw człowieka z punktu widzenia ENP. A. de Benoist argumentuje, iż prawa człowieka są de facto bronią ideologiczną Zachodu, służącą do symbolicznego zdominowania niezachodnich państw.

  • O metodologicznych trudnościach badania i opisywania Chin

    Author: Krzysztof Gawlikowski
    Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 50-78
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap201903
    PDF: ap/22/ap2203.pdf

    Some methodological difficulties in studying and analysing China

    The study presents various factors which obstacles adequate description and analysis of Chinese realities in Western scholarly literature. The first factor presented in the article is the psychological mechanism of a “mirror”. As Lynn T. White suggested, since the 17th century, that Westerners look at China not through a ‘window’ but through a ‘mirror’, in which their own fears or most treasured ideals are refl ected, not China itself. Hence their descriptions of China refl ect first of all their state of mind. Peter Hays Gries and Stanley Rosen add to this metaphor another one, that of a procrustean bed. According to these authors, contemporary Western scholars procede like ancient Procrustes who made his captives fit his bed cutting their too long limbs or stretching these too short, in order to adapt Chinese realities to the Western schemes. Sebastian Heilmann and Matthias Stepan in order to explain Western mistaken views of China and expectations presented six wrong assumptions concerning developments in China. Their list is controversial, but it is true that on the Western side there are numerous wrong assumptions concerning China and other Asian states. Thus the Chinese realities are described in a wrong way, and the predictions of future developments are also false.
    The Author put an emphasis on scientific categories and terms elaborated in Europe and the States and considered “universal”, which, however, are not adequate to the Chinese realities. Hence their use results in falsification of descriptions and makes previsions based on them – groundless. He distinguishes two essential kinds of categories and terms borrowed from the West but inadequate to the Chinese realities. The first constitutes the terms which significance does not fit to the Chinese realities, as “language”, “religion”, historical epochs such as “antiquity”, “,Middle Ages”, etc. The second constitutes the terms which meanings involve cultural values. Many of them are difficult to translate into Chinese and they acquire different meanings in the context of Confucian heritage. The Author analyses from this perspective: “human rights”, “democracy” and “freedom”.
    Western scholars are also often mislead by Chinese sources. The study indicates another factor, which facilitates great misunderstandings. According to the cultural norm of the Confucian civilisation there is a “proper façade” presented in public, behind which there are hidden “internal realities”. Of course, such differences could be detected in each culture, but in highly ritualistic Confucian civilisation this distinction is essential, and both parts constitute “complex realities”, whereas Westerners presume that the façade constitutes a whole and complete reality. The Author presents as an example centralised, unitary Leninist state in Chin that is – in his opinion merely a false “public image”, whereas in reality there operate more or less innumerable quite autonomous units, which in fact are not subordinate. Under such circumstances all decisions must be consulted and negotiated among them, like in a federal system, although it does not operate formally. The Westerners also misleads themselves considering their peculiar civilisation as “universal”, whereas there are various civilisations, which will not amalgamate during the modernisation processes. Hence various societies function and change in their own ways, different from the western schemes and expectations.
    The study indicates that the West still predominates and presents its civilisation as universal. However, its predomination faces growing resistance and numerous scholars recognise the existence of numerous civilisations, which will also develop in the future. The author enumerates the most significant concepts such as “dialogue among civilisations and cultures” adopted by the United Nations in 1989, Huntington’s warning against imposing western norms on other civilisations, which may result in their ‘clashes’, the concept of the Axial Age, of Multiple Modernities, and so on. The road to an equal status of all civilisations is long and tortuous. The elaboration of universal scientific categories and principles is even more difficult, and it is, perhaps, a task for future generations of Asian scholars.

  • Patologia władzy a bezpieczeństwo jednostki. Analiza sytuacji w państwach dysfunkcyjnych Afryki Subsaharyjskiej

    Author: Margot Stańczyk-Minkiewicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7994-8336
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 159-177
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201912
    PDF: cip/17/cip1712.pdf

    Czym jest patologia? Co leży u podstaw jej zaistnienia? Jaką formę przybiera ona w rękach przedstawicieli władzy? I wreszcie jaki ma wpływ na bezpieczeństwo jednostki żyjącej w danym państwie? Zamierzeniem autorki niniejszego artykułu jest ukazanie zależności pomiędzy patologią władzy występującą w państwach dysfunkcyjnych1 a destabilizacją bezpieczeństwa ich obywateli. Obszarem poddanym eksploracji w poniższym tekście jest region Afryki Subsaharyjskiej2, z dwóch zasadniczych powodów. Po pierwsze dlatego, że właśnie tam (według corocznych rankingów Fragile States Index3) znajduje się najwięcej państw dysfunkcyjnych w skali globu, a po drugie dlatego, że z raportów opracowywanych przez różne instytucje rządowe, organizacje międzynarodowe i think tanki wynika, że skala tego problemu w Afryce zdecydowanie przewyższa niekorzystną sytuację w innych regionach świata. Odpowiedzi na zadane pytania autorka formułować będzie w oparciu o analizę literatury dotyczącej problematyki tematu, analizę danych publikowanych w wyżej wspomnianych raportach międzynarodowych, tj. Democracy Index, Freedom in the World Report, Corruption Perception Index, Human Development Index, Global Terrorism Index, i badania własne prowadzone od lat w wielu krajach Afryki Subsaharyjskiej.

  • Restrictions on Human Rights and Freedoms During the Time of Epidemic in Poland

    Author: Agnieszka Gajda
    E-mail: agnieszka.gajda@ug.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Gdansk
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1348-174X
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 17-27
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.01
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5701.pdf

    When in 2020 the World Health Organization announced a COVID-19 contagious disease pandemic, it was clear that governments must take actions to limit the consequences of pandemia. Poland was one of the first to introduce far-reaching measures, limiting freedom of movement and closing an increasing number of business and activities. The Polish Constitution contains potential extraordinary measures, including the provision for declaring a “state of natural disaster”, but the Polish government has refrained from enacting it. Instead, it is based on a “state of epidemic”, which is not provided for in the Constitution as the legal ground for limiting human rights. The purpose of this study is to answer the question whether human rights restrictions introduced during the epidemic have a sufficient legal basis from the point of view of the Polish Constitution and the resulting principles.

  • Constitutional Protection of Fundamental Freedoms in the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada

    Author: Joanna Uliasz
    E-mail: uliaszj@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8967-0064
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 523-531
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.42
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5842.pdf

    This paper provides a brief analysis of Section 2 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which deals with Canadians’ “fundamental freedoms”. Provisions of the Charter guarantee freedom of conscience and religion; freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication; freedom of peaceful assembly; and freedom of association.

  • Right to Work for People with Disabilities

    Author: Michał Skóra
    E-mail: mskora@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Rzeszow University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2701-5945
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 623-631
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.51
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5851.pdf

    The article refers to the right to work of people with disabilities. The author explains the meaning of the terms “disabled person”, “disability” in the context of international regulations and national legislation. He also points to the foundations of the right to work in the context of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, as well as the Act on Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities. The author draws attention to international regulations of the UN and ILO in this field. The article outlines the realization of this right in the context of employment of people with disabilities in protected labor market entities and on the so-called open labor market.

  • Prawo do świadczeń z pomocy społecznej w świetle Konstytucji RP

    Author: Sylwia Stecko
    E-mail: Sylwia.204@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4136-0371
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 357-371
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.02.22
    PDF: ppk/60/ppk6022.pdf

    The right to social assistance benefits in the light of the Polish Constitution

    This article discusses the right to social assistance benefits in the light of the Polish Con- stitution. Its purpose is to present the principles and legal norms directly related to this law. On the basis of the material contained therein, it can reasonably be assumed that among the values and norms specified in the Constitution and relating to the sphere of human social rights, human dignity deserves special attention, as well as the principle of subsidiarity, which are related to the issues of social assistance.

  • 30 lat później: problem rządów prawa w exposé ministrów spraw zagranicznych Polski z perspektywy 1990 i 2019 r.

    Author: Przemysław Brzuszczak
    Institution: Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 210-228
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.70.13
    PDF: apsp/70/apsp7013.pdf

    Artykuł stanowi próbę porównania obecności problematyki rządów prawa w dorocznych exposé ministrów spraw zagranicznych RP z perspektywy 1990 i 2019 r. Impulsem do wzmiankowanej analizy wystąpień Krzysztofa Skubiszewskiego i Jacka Czaputowicza były: 30. rocznica powołania rządu Tadeusza Mazowieckiego i – co się z tym wiąże – zapowiedź ustanowienia standardów prawnych charakterystycznych dla zachodnich demokracji liberalnych oraz, siłą rzeczy, bieżący spór wokół praworządności w Polsce. Okoliczności te sprawiły, że zagadnienie rządów prawa zajęło istotne miejsce w przemówieniach obu szefów dyplomacji. W artykule dokonano analizy wystąpień obu ministrów spraw zagranicznych. Kwestia praworządności pojawia się w nich w następujących kontekstach: krajowym (transformacja wymiaru sprawiedliwości i towarzyszący jej dyskurs) oraz międzynarodowym, obejmującym relacje Polski z innymi państwami (ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem państw sąsiedzkich) i organizacjami międzynarodowymi (Rada Europy – przez pryzmat przede wszystkim Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka, Unia Europejska, ONZ). O ile minister Skubiszewski w pewnym sensie wyznaczył w swym exposé „punkt wyjścia” polskiej polityki zagranicznej (w tym zobowiązanie do implementacji międzynarodowych standardów ochrony praw człowieka), tak Jacek Czaputowicz „punkt dojścia”, bowiem najistotniejsze cele wolnej Polski w sferze stosunków zewnętrznych zostały na przestrzeni 30 lat zrealizowane. Zmiana polityczna, jaką przyniosły wybory parlamentarne w 2015 r., sprawiła, że problem rządów prawa w Polsce stał się – także w polityce zagranicznej – na powrót aktualny.

  • Problem bezpieczeństwa w wybranych polskich konstytucjach

    Author: Marcin Jurgilewicz
    E-mail: m.jurgilewicz@prz.edu.pl
    Institution: Politechnika Rzeszowska im. I. Łukasiewicza
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2243-2165
    Author: Jolanta Itrich-Drabarek
    E-mail: j.itrich-draba@uw.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7509-3561
    Author: Andrzej Misiuk
    E-mail: amisiuk@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1371-6270
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 347-358
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.22
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6222.pdf

    Security problem in selected polish constitutions

    The Republic of Poland is a democratic state ruled by law, and the normative basis of its functioning is legal acts of the highest order – the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2, 1997. The Basic Law has the highest rank and force among all sources of universally binding law. In the constitution, the legislator granted certain norms the status of constitutional principles, which are fulfilled by the function of program norms while being the basis for the interpretation of other regulations. Among the constitutional principles, the obligation to ensure the safety of citizens was distinguished. The article in general presents the problem of security not only in the currently binding constitution, but also in selected other Polish constitutions.

  • Prawa człowieka w konstytucjach wybranych państw europejskich

    Author: Grzegorz Janusz
    E-mail: grzegorz.janusz@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5517-8605
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 359-374
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.23
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6223.pdf

    Human rights in the constitutions of selected European countries

    Nowadays human rights are an essential part of constitutional regulations in the European countries. The very first universal regulation based on the rights of every citizen, was The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen set in 1789. Analysed constitutions of France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Latvia, Bohemia, Slovakia and Poland point to the developments of rights of individuals through expanding these rights from the rights of the citizens to the rights of every person on the territory of a particular country. Obviously, the rights concerning exclusively the citizens of a particular country, like for example the right to vote, have still been maintained. A modern catalogue of rights and freedoms of individuals is abundant and expanded by, for example, the right to the constitutional complaint or the right to a clear environment. Nowadays the human rights standards are widely recognised though not always respected. This results from the legal and political practise, in which the scope of the rights of individuals is still being narrowed. One of the reasons are ideological and political changes in particular countries, which are being enforced with the development of civilisation and technology.

  • Tajemnica zawodowa adwokatów i radców prawnych jako gwarancja ochrony sfery prywatnej jednostki

    Author: Joanna Uliasz
    E-mail: uliaszj@onet.eu
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8967-0064
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 401-413
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.26
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6226.pdf

    Professional Secrecy of Lawyers as a Way to Protect the Private Sphere of an Individual

    The private sphere of an individual is legally protected by the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997 as well as civil, criminal and administrative law. The paper discusses the duty of confidentionality of lawyers and the role of that duty to protect the private sphere of an individual. The positive aspect of professional secrecy and the so-called internal aspect of the protection of professional secrecy of lawyers prompted the consideration of the horizontal effect of onstitutional norms. Likewise, the negative aspect of professional secrecy and its external perspective prompted the examination of the vertical effect of onstitutional norms that protect the private sphere of an individual.

  • Ochrona przyszłych pokoleń w procesie dążenia do neutralności klimatycznej w orzecznictwie Federalnego Trybunału Konstytucyjnego w Niemczech

    Author: Olga Hałub-Kowalczyk
    E-mail: olga.halub@prawo.uni.wroc.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2747-2625
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 271-280
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.21
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6321.pdf

    Protection of the future generations in the context of the climate neutrality goals in the jurisprudence of the Federal Constitutional Court in Germany

    In this paper the impact of the current legal provisions in Germany, dedicated to achieving the goal of climate neutrality till 2050, on the human rights and freedoms of next generations will be investigated. An assumption for this reaserch task is a judgement of the Federal Constitutional Tribunal from 24 March 2021, related to the obligaton for the public authorities to provide the inter-generational justice in the framework of environmental policy. The aim of this paper is also to examine if the climate neutrality can receive a status of new, constitutional value in the German legal order.

  • Prawa językowe w Federacji Rosyjskiej: commùne bònum czy bonorum privata? Język v. konstytucja

    Author: Illia Klinytskyi
    E-mail: illia.klinytskyi@us.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7401-8233
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 307-322
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.24
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6324.pdf

    Language rights in the Russian Federation: commùne bònum or bonorum privata? Language v. Constitution

    The article presents the approaches to protecting an individual’s linguistic rights that appear in the literature on the subject and then the method of its implementation in the Russian Federation’s legislation. The conducted research allowed us to identify two ways of qualifying an individual’s linguistic rights as human rights. The first is based on understanding them as one of the rights of national minorities, and the second as a category of personal rights. The approaches interpenetrate each other because the native language of an individual is, on the one hand, an expression of national identity and, on the other, a personal good through which he expresses himself. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the state not only does not guarantee language rights but even that they may be violated. The constitution-maker created the conditions for reconciling this category of rights against international obligations.

  • Konstytucyjne prawo jednostki do ochrony wolności i praw człowieka a kształtowanie bezpieczeństwa indywidualnego - interdyscyplinarne ujęcie problemu

    Author: Monika Wojakowska
    E-mail: mwojakowska@sgsp.edu.pl
    Institution: Szkoła Główna Służby Pożarniczej w Warszawie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6201-9124
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 459-469
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.36
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6336.pdf

    Constitutional right of an individual to the protection of freedom and human rights and shaping individual safety – interdisciplinary approach to the problem

    The obligations of the state towards people and citizens are included in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, those concerning security in Art. 5. However, this document does not clearly define the essence of this concept. The aim of the article is to show the need to include it in the basic law. The analysis of legal acts, literature in the field of security, state and law, and own research shows that society needs an unambiguous definition of terms. Of course, it was emphasized that the clarification of the definition of security in the Polish Constitution is not a simple challenge, as it cannot be formulated in absolute terms. However, an attempt can be made to analyze the subjective and objective approach to the problem. The need to look at individual security through the prism of development and the use of individual opportunities in the light of the common good protected by law has been demonstrated.

  • Glosa do wyroku Federalnego Sądu Najwyższego Szwajcarii z 8 września 2020 r. (sprawa Caster Semenyi)

    Author: Beata Stępień-Załucka
    E-mail: beata@kpmz.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1802-680X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 587-597
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.48
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6348.pdf

    Some remarks on the judgment of the Swiss Federal Tribunal of 8 September 2020 (Caster Semenya case)

    This article deals with an important for the world of sport ruling of the Swiss Federal Tribunal of 2020 (in the case of the athlete Caster Semenya) decided against the background of the legal aspects of gender differences and sports competition. It presents an overview of the problem and its resolution, as well as possible further implications of the case, related to the standards of human rights protection existing under the European Convention on Human Rights. The author presents the principles of the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment, respect for private and family life and the prohibition of discrimination and makes a legal assessment of the judgment in the case from their perspective. The analysis results in conclusions concerning legal aspects of gender differences and sports competition. These conclusions have a universal dimension and apply to the broadly defined sub-discipline of law, which is the sports law.

  • Freedoms and Human Rights in the Venezuelan Constitution in the Context of the Functioning of an Authoritarian State

    Author: Wawrzyniec Kowalski
    E-mail: wawrzyniec.kowalski@wat.edu.pl
    Institution: Military University of Technology
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7426-9593
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 151-161
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.12
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6412.pdf

    The purpose of the article is to draw attention to the functioning of constitutional guarantees of human rights and freedoms contained in the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The author addresses the issue of human rights protection, including the development of institutions guaranteeing their protection in the context of the authoritarian model of governance in Venezuela. The paper is a theoretical attempt to present the problem of the functioning of human rights institutions in Venezuela at the constitutional level after the seizure of power by President Nicolas Maduro. It also attempts to determine to what extent the Chavista camp suspended constitutional guarantees of protection of human rights and freedoms in Venezuela. At the same time, the article describes how the petrification of the system of power by Nicolas Maduro affects the state of human rights protection in the country.

  • The Intergenerational Equity Dimension of the “Green Deal” Emphasised by the Order of the German Federal Constitutional Court of March 24, 2021

    Author: Szymon Gajda
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 201-210
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.16
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6416.pdf

    On March 24, 2021, the First Senate of The German Federal Constitutional Court issued that part of the Federal Climate Change Act of December 12, 2019 (Federal Law Gazette I, p. 2513) must be deemed contrary to Basic Law. The fundamental reason underlying his conclusion was the failure of the federal legislator and the Federal Government to take suitable and prospectively sufficient measures to decrease greenhouse gasses (predominantly CO2) emissions. The Tribunal interpreted Art. 20a of the Basic Law, in conformity with the principle of intergenerational equity. By anchoring his reasoning in that concept, the Tribunal turned into an unclear and controversial path. It may serve to enhance radical political changes. However, on the other hand, it may also undermine the green change.

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