prawa i wolności człowieka

  • Bezpieczeństwo państwa oraz konstytucyjna ochrona praw i wolności człowieka w świetle Konstytucji RP z 1997 r.

    Author: Anna Rytel-Warzocha
    E-mail: ania-rytel@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 349-360
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2016.06.19
    PDF: ppk/34/ppk3419.pdf

    Zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa państwu należy do podstawowych obowiązków jego organów, które mogą w tym celu podejmować szereg środków prawnych. W tym kontekście zadać jednak można pytanie czy dla ochrony wartości jaką jest bezpieczeństwo państwa mogą zostać ograniczone prawa i wolności jednostki, a jeżeli tak, to jak daleko może sięgać ingerencja państwa w tym zakresie. Czy można ograniczyć podstawowe prawo człowieka – prawo do ochrony życia dla ochrony bezpieczeństwa państwa? Konflikt między tymi wartościami ilustruje polska regulacja, jaką w 2004 r. wprowadzono do prawa lot- niczego, pozwalająca w określonych przypadkach zestrzelić samolot cywilny z pasażerami na pokładzie. Regulacja ta stała się przedmiotem orzeczenia Trybunału Konstytucyjnego, który uznał ją za niekonstytucyjną. Niemniej jednak pojawienie się nowych form terroryzmu oraz eskalacja tego zjawiska w Europie, która charakteryzuje początek XXI w. sprawia, że problem pozostaje wciąż aktualny.

  • Hierarchizacja praw i wolności jednostki w świetle konstytucyjnej regulacji stanu nadzwyczajnego

    Author: Krzysztof Eckhardt
    Institution: WSPiA Rzeszowska Szkoła Wyższa
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 87-100
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2014.02.06
    PDF: ppk/18/ppk1806.pdf

    Analysis of the regulation of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2nd, 1997 leads to the conclusion that the provisions of its XIth chapter provide for a hierarchy of the rights and freedoms of a person during a period of introduction of the extraordinary measures. The Polish legislator linked the type of the applied extraordinary measure with the possibility of limitation of certain human rights – a solution not known in international documents. Hence, it established a hierarchy of the human rights during the period of introduction of the extraordinary measures with three levels of protection. The hierarchization of the rights and freedoms of a person in the constitutional provisions regarding the extraordinary measures is not crafted to determine the hierarchic supremacy of some rights above the others, but just a particular level of protection of some of them from the intervention of the state.

  • Bezpieczeństwo jako prawo człowieka – aspekt kolektywny w zestawieniu z indywidualnym

    Author: Martyna Kaczmarczyk
    E-mail: martyna_lawrynowicz@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospoełczny Szkoła Wyższa Psychologii Społecznej w Warszawie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6169-9466
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 189-206
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.01.10
    PDF: ppk/47/ppk4710.pdf

    Safety is widely understood as a natural human right and has numerous guarantees in international legal acts and in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. As a concept, it has a wide range and many aspects, which makes it difficult to clearly define. Its range includes diverse spheres of individual and social life. In the era of intense interpenetration of private and public life, safety in the individual dimension clashes with its collective aspect. Both public safety and private security are not absolute goods, and the Constitution provides possibility of limiting them. The purpose of the article is whether and to what extent the entity’s ability to use the right to security is affected by restrictions on the use of freedom and constitutional rights, including private security, as provided in art. 31 para. 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland for protection, among others public safety and public order.

  • Godność człowieka w porządku prawnym Izraela – zarys problemu

    Author: Paweł Sadowski
    E-mail: pawel.sadowski@umcs.lublin.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9480-643X
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 113-142
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.03.06
    PDF: ppk/49/ppk4906.pdf

    The traumatic experiences of World War II have highlighted the serious deficit of national and international measures to protect human rights and their ideological support to place human dignity as the main and indisputable pillar of a democratic state and supranational communities. Human dignity is nowadays one of the factors determining the court’s jurisdictional proceedings. This also applies to states that formally did not include it in the catalog of constitutionally guaranteed rights and freedoms. Qualitative, quantitative and comparative analysis of the functioning of the concept of human dignity reveals its various meanings and functions. They are determinants in assessing the activities of state authorities from the point of view of implementing the principles of a democratic state of law and the need to respect the rights of individuals. In connection with the richness of interpreting the concept of human dignity within the framework of constitutional values, one can not ignore the rich history of the doctrine of human dignity. It allows us to understand and define the nature of general concepts and give different meanings. Human dignity in many legal systems, including Israel, is a constitutional value, as well as the law that the constitutional norms guarantee. The issue of its regulation and definition in the Israeli legal order due to the specificity of the problem is an interesting issue, both theoretical and legal as well as practical.

  • Objection of the Physician’s Conscience. Legal or Ethical Category?

    Author: Aldona Domańska
    E-mail: adomanska@wpia.uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: University of Łódź
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9343-6932
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 275-284
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.22
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5822.pdf

    Freedom of conscience is the basis of a democratic state and a pluralistic society. It has been formed slowly in the course of long-lasting historical processes and philosophical discourse. Although intuitively understood, this concept is still not clearly defined. This freedom is guaranteed by the normative acts in force in the UN system, as well as in the Council of Europe and the European Union and in the basic laws of individual states. Its protection is the conscience clause, which is not regulated by the basic law. The aim of this research is to answer a question whether the conscience clause is a legal or purely ethical category. In view of the broad scope with regard to this issue, the paper is devoted to the question of determining the legal nature of the physician’s conscience clause.

  • Wolność zgromadzeń w czasach pandemii. Doświadczenia izraelskie

    Author: Paweł Sadowski
    E-mail: pawel.sadowski@mail.umcs.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9480-643X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 415-426
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.27
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6227.pdf

    Freedom of assembly in times of a pandemic. Israeli experiences

    Freedom of assembly is an essential element in modern democracies, also during emergency situations. The time of the pandemic is an example of the use of various restriction mechanisms of human rights. The Israeli case is worth discussing because as in other democratic states the political internal crises overlap with the pandemic emergency regulations and tensions between parliament and executive branch in law-making.

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