prawo konstytucyjne

  • Relacje między Zasadami Techniki Prawodawczej a Zasadami Poprawnej Legislacji w procesie stanowienia prawa

    Author: Kamil Stępniak
    E-mail: kamilstepniak@o2.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 209-224
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.11
    PDF: ppk/35/ppk3511.pdf

    Meaning of the principles of legislative techniques (PLT) and the principles of proper legislation (PPL) should be regarded as a key to the process of lawmaking. These rules are often a guarantee for the protection of human rights. The principles of good legislation are inferred by the Constitutional Court of Art. 2 of the Polish Constitution (the democratic rule of law). The principles of legislative techniques are included in the Annex to the Regulation of the Prime Minister Council of Ministers dated on 20 June 2002 on the principles of legislative technique. The paper presents a characteristics of both disciplines taking into account their specificity and historical background. It was also shown that by joint application of PPL and PLT and their inseparable correlation legislator may establish acts that will guarantee the protection of human rights and will protect the interests of the State. The Author also identified benefits which derive form joint application of both sets of legislative rules and principles.

  • Prawa człowieka i obywatela jako moralny kierunkowskaz ustrojowy Republiki Federalnej Niemiec

    Author: Jan Wiktor Tkaczyński
    E-mail: jan.tkaczynski@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 19-57
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2018.03.01
    PDF: ppk/43/ppk4301.pdf

    The end of Nazism lawlessness, proved – beyond reasonable doubt – that values which are sustainable and unbreakable exists. These values are getting older – as everything in this world, but does not become outdated. As a starting point shall be taken joint and individual experiences from National-Socialists period, which cannot be forgotten, especially from perspective of historical context: the state and society were impact by ideological experiment. The experiment had a common meaning – individuals disregard and cult of masses. Never individualism did not mean so few. And never the freedom of individual was so deficit commodity. When thinking deeper on this subject, it is – without any doubts, possible to assumed, that these past experiences had strong and thorough influence on authors of German constitution from 1949. It shall be emphasized that the opening word of the German Basic Law is: „The human dignity is irrebuttable”. From the point of legal system, it is striking, because in typical (and – commonly used in other democratic systems) opening constitutional provisions, we can read, to whom the power in the state is dedicated, or what is the legal form of state.

  • Polskie unormowania konstytucyjne względem zasady pomocniczości i jej rozwinięcie w ustawach zwykłych

    Author: Michał Klimkowski
    E-mail: mgk7@o2.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 91-105
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2015.03.04
    PDF: ppk/25/ppk2504.pdf

    This paper is an attempt to show regulations on the principle of subsidiarity, enclosed in Polish Constitution and other legal acts. Polish legislation is familiar with the concept of subsidiarity, it is included in the preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. This provision was intended to emphasize its importance for the implementation of civil rights. It was considered that subsidiarity is important for strengthening the powers of citizens and communities they create. It is present to protect their rights, as well as any action taken by manifestations of civic activity in associations. This imposes an obligation on the legislature for an appropriate division of roles, in carrying out tasks of the local public administration. Applying the method of the institutional and legal analysis, demonstrated the presence and development of subsidiarity in the legislation. Analyzed materials also show the gradual, yet slow development of the principle of subsidiarity in Polish legislation. Its basis can be found in the constitutional law, which is the determinant of the direction of its development. The Constitutional Tribunal is also affecting subsidiarity by its decisions. The first part is a review of the principle of subsidiarity in Polish Constitution. It also expresses the impact of principle on the Republic of Poland. The second part concerns the principle of subsidiarity in the ordinary law. It shows how the principle is being developed since the late 80’s. The last part is an attempt to reveal the implementation of subsidiarity in activities of local governments. It focuses on how subsidiarity can provide the right to operate freely and retain autonomy of actions.

  • Wstęp do Konstytucji Węgier ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem „Narodowego wyznania wiary”

    Author: Stefánia Bódi
    E-mail: bodi.stefania@uni-nke.hu
    Institution: Uniwersytet Służb Publiczych, Budapeszt
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 225-234
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2018.05.13
    PDF: ppk/45/ppk4513.pdf

    Ustawa Zasadnicza Węgier weszła w życie 1 stycznia 2012 r. Ustawa Zasadnicza w warstwie aksjologicznej jest konstytucją konserwatywną, zawierającą również elementy chrześcijańskie, która teraz po raz pierwszy zawiera Narodowe wyznanie wiary (kredo). Pierwsza z sześciu części Ustawy Zasadniczej nosi tytuł Narodowe wyznanie wiary, zawarte w niej przepisy można dosłownie uznać za kredo, samostanowienie (samookreślenie) państwa. W stosunku do poprzedniej konstytucji, obecna zawiera wiele nowatorskich rozwiązań, które należy ocenić pozytywnie.

  • Algorytmy priorytezujące w świetle zasady wolnych wyborów

    Author: Kamil Stępniak
    E-mail: kamilstepniak@o2.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6844-0817
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 47-71
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2019.04.03
    PDF: ppk/50/ppk5003.pdf

    The principle of free elections allows for broad protection of imponderables related to the electoral process. Its scope covers activities ranging from the possibility of reading electoral information, up to the voting process itself. Such a broad approach to this principle of electoral law, which in fact is currently not expressed expressis verbis in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, allows protection of the entire voting process. This, in turn, seems crucial in the field of reference to modern technologies. These are undoubtedly easier for us to live, however, improperly used, they can interfere with democratic processes. This article is an attempt to answer a momentous practical question: how can the content optimization algorithms used in search engines and social networks influence freedom of choice, and whether inappropriate use of these algorithms may violate the law and to what extent can it influence democratic processes? In my opinion, taking up this research topic will help to secure the interests of democratic states, as well as looking at the principle of “free elections” in a slightly different context than before.

  • Klauzula demokratycznego państwa prawnego jako fundament limitacji ograniczania konstytucyjnych praw i wolności jednostki

    Author: Jacek Karakulski
    E-mail: jacek_karakulski@ onet.eu
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3085-8705
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 267-281
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.01.15
    PDF: ppk/53/ppk5315.pdf

    Despite the introduction to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997 of a number of detailed regulations (principles) previously derived from the democratic state ruled by law clause, its importance for the discourse around the limits of legislative interference in the sphere of individual rights and freedoms remains relevant. The author of this text focuses on the analysis of the multifaceted nature of the impact of this fundamental principle on the process of interpretation and application of legal provisions. The text outlines the issues related not only to the scope of direct application of Article 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, but also its importance for reasoning about the constitutional axiology which significance for the assessment of the legality (proportionality) of interference by the legislative authority with the domain of constitutional rights and freedoms is becoming ever clearer.

  • Druga poprawka do konstytucji USA. Rys historyczny, cele i założenia

    Author: Piotr Czeczot
    E-mail: piotr.czeczot@o2.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0137-8526
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 443-459
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.24
    PDF: ppk/56/ppk5624.pdf

    Second Amendment to the American Constitution. Genesis, Targets and Objectives

    The author will try to trace the genesis of the Second Amendment in the context of the American constitution process and the influence of other legal acts on the final content of the provision in question. What’s more the author will analyze the ideas that accompanied the Founding Fathers and which led to the creation of the United States Constitution. The author will analyze the objectives of the Second Amendment and the ideological assumptions that underpin it, including the issue of enabling citizens personal defense and the protection of private property, as well as the issue of guaranteeing citizens an effective tool to resist the state apparatus as a guarantee of citizens’ freedom as well as to prevent possible tyranny. Finally, the author will refer to the issue of culture of gun ownership in the USA and Poland.

  • Searching for Progress: Progressivism and the U.S. Supreme Court Jurisprudence (Some Remarks)

    Author: Edyta Sokalska
    E-mail: edyta.sokalska@uwm.edu.pl
    Institution: Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0903-7726
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 443-462
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.33
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5733.pdf

    In American legal historiography, the debate concerning the exact contours and reforms of the Progressive Era is still ongoing. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the American reform movements tried to match American ideals with the challenges of the times. Although progressive attitudes toward the economy, taxation, foreign policy, labor law, social standards, human rights, women’s suffrage, rapid urbanization and unrestricted immigration highlighted the necessity of reforms, such progress was seen from a variety of perspectives. We may ask the question if American legal thought that time was really progressive. The jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court profoundly influenced the shape of the legal order in economic and labor law. Unfortunately, some decisions were not compatible with the visions of progressive reformers and reflected the ideological attitudes of the justices rather than an aspiration for reform.

  • Konstytucyjne podstawy zasady swobody umów w kontekście różnorodności podmiotów prawa prywatnego

    Author: Bartosz Wiśniewski
    E-mail: 256972@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2409-5369
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 119-132
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.01.07
    PDF: ppk/59/ppk5907.pdf

    The Constitution of the Republic of Poland does not contain a provision that would directly shape the freedom of contract as a rule of law. However, this principle is so important in the private law system that its constitutional origin is beyond doubt. This article is an attempt to establish the foundations of the principle of freedom of contract under the Constitution of the Republic of Poland and to show whether these grounds differ from each other depending on the type of entities that freedom inhere. For this purpose, the views presented in the doctrine were analyzed using the qualitative method. This allowed the thesis that the legislator shapes the foundations of the principle of freedom of contract for natural persons more widely than for other types of private law entities. This, in turn, in the author’s opinion, leads to legal inequalities and allows shaping further-reaching restrictions on the principle of freedom of contract in relation to private law entities other than natural person

  • Model relacji między państwem a związkami wyznaniowymi na Ukrainie – aspekt prawny

    Author: Kacper Milkowski
    E-mail: kacpermilkowski@gmail.com
    Institution: Akademia Ekonomiczno-Humanistyczna w Warszawie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4367-0365
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 225-247
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.01.14
    PDF: ppk/59/ppk5914.pdf

    The purpose of the publication is to characterize the model of relations between the state and religious organizations in Ukraine. After Ukraine gained independence in 1991, it was necessary to regulate issues related to the functioning of religious organizations in accordance with democratic standards. The model of separation adopted in the Constitution of Ukraine is the culmination of political changes. However, the Constitution of Ukraine provides for guarantees of freedom of conscience and religion, based on international standards arising from the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966 and the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 1950. Pursuant to Article 35 of the Constitution of Ukraine, everyone has the right to ideological freedom and to choose a religion. This right includes: freedom to profess any religion or not profess religion, freely cultivate religious or ritual cults individually or collectively, and conduct religious activities. This right may be restricted only if it is in the interest of protecting public order, health and morality of the population, or protecting the rights and freedoms of others. It should be noted that the law in question correlates with the constitutional provisions regarding the “ideological diversity” of social life in Ukraine, where the state cannot make any ideology compulsory – Art. 15 of the Constitution. Nevertheless, there is traditionally a significant influence of religious institutions on social relations, political events, which is explained by the historical significance of churches and religious organizations in the life of Slavic peoples and the specificity of the national mentality, the main component of which is religious spirituality. The author in this publication analyzes the legal system. The article also discusses selected problems related to the practical application of legal provisions.

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