The transference of presidential authority takes place in the event of a vacancy in the office or due to a temporary inability to discharge the duties of the office.Polish law describes the following situations where such a vacancy is deemed to occur: the death of the President, his resignation from office, a judicial dec- laration of the invalidity of the Presidential election or other reasons for not assuming office following the election, a declaration by the National Assembly of the President’s permanent incapacity to exercise his duties due to the state of his health and dismissal of the President from office by a judgment of the Tribunal of State. In such circumstances the Marshal of the Sejm is authorized to temporarily discharge the duties of the President until the next President is elected. Similar stipulations are given for declaring a vacancy in the office of the President in Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. In the case of Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, a more open legal formulation was chosen. Article 131 § 1 of the Polish Constitution does not clearly describe the situa- tions that warrant a temporary inability to discharge the duties of the President’s office, and thus the decision to transfer presidential duties to the Marshal is not specifically prescribed by law. This means that there is a risk that the article may be applied arbitrarily. The constitutional law of Poland’s neighboring countries dealing with the temporary inability to discharge the duties of the President’s office varies in the degree of specificity. In the case of Germany, Russia and Be- larus, the law is quite general; whereas in the case of Latvia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the law goes into much more detail. In Poland, both in the event of the temporary inability to discharge the duties of the office as well as a permanent vacancy in the office, the duties of the President are taken over by the Marshal of the Sejm. In the event that the Marshal of the Sejm is unable to discharge the duties of the President, the next in line would be the Marshal of the Senate. In Germany, Latvia and Belarus, the duties of the President are transferred to the speaker of the Parliament; while in Russia and Ukraine — to the prime minister. In Slovakia and the Czech Republic, presidential competences are divided among several state organs. A vacancy in the office of the President has the legal consequence of necessitating the ordering of a new election. The temporary inability to discharge the duties of his office can lead to a permanent incapacity to exercise his duties. There is no regulation of how the President might regain his authority from the person who has been temporarily exercising it.