realism

  • Global Governance – a Perspective on World Politics. Four Theoretical Approaches

    Author: Magdalena Kozub-Karkut
    Institution: Th e School of Administration in Bielsko-Biala
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 22-42
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2014.44.02
    PDF: apsp/44/apsp4402.pdf

    The objective of this article is to demonstrate the place of the global governance concept in four international relations theories: realism, liberalism, neoliberal institutionalism and social constructivism. Global governance is defined as the sum of ways that institutions and international organizations, both public and private, use to try to cooperate at the global level in order to manage their common affairs. In addition, the paper defines global governance as being a specific perspective on world politics that offers a tool for understanding global change in an era of shifting boundaries and relocated authorities. The main research questions of the article are: how the most influential IR theories have reacted to the global governance concept and why the term ‘global governance’, so popularly and so frequently used in the 1990’s, has not resulted in a stable concept. Conclusions and suggestions presented in the summary point out that global governance held the promise of a radical transformation (predicted by almost every IR theory) of world order at the end of the Cold War. However, this great institutional transformation has never taken place. Therefore, current global politics still remain resistant to any form of world (or global) governance.

  • Strategic Ambiguity in US-Taiwan Relations During the Donald Trump Administration

    Author: Filip Grzegorzewski
    E-mail: filippolska@gmail.com
    Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/filippolska@gmail.com
    Published online: 30 January 2022
    Final submission: 23 January 2022
    Printed issue: March 2022
    Source: Show
    Page no: 16
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202210
    PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202210.pdf

    Strategic ambiguity, or the deliberate policy of uncertainty as to whether the United States would use force to defend Taiwan against an invasion by the People's Republic of China, has been the centrepiece of US policy towards the Taiwan issue for decades. This paper discusses the factors driving the redefinition of strategic ambiguity and its recalibration throughout Donald Trump's presidency (2017–2021). The fundamental driver of this change was to balance the rising power of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The paper applied offensive realism as a theoretical framework for its analysis. Under President Donald Trump, Washington modified its policy of strategic ambiguity, explicitly framing relations with Taiwan within a broader Indo-Pacific strategy. While the US retained key elements of strategic ambiguity, including the 'One China' policy, it added new features to deploy it offensively against Beijing's growing regional hegemony. The increased dynamism and unpredictability of relations with Taiwan were matched by a welcoming attitude towards strengthening Taiwanese identity and highlighting the systemic differences between communist China and democratic Taiwan. America stepped up arms sales and encouraged Taiwan to build its self-defence capabilities. Washington engaged in countering Chinese attempts to isolate Taiwan internationally and included it in restructuring global supply chains. Although the United States has not formally revised the boundaries of the 'One China' policy, the modification of strategic ambiguity increased Taiwan's prominence in US-China power competition and pushed back the prospect of peaceful unification.

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