refugee crisis

  • Sweden’s Image Policy in the Times of Refugee Crisis

    Author: Anna Kobierecka
    Institution: University of Łódź
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 187-202
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/64/apsp6411.pdf

    Sweden has a substantially long tradition of conducting an image policy using both public diplomacy and nation branding. The refugee crisis is a significant challenge for maintaining a strong nation brand and positive perceptions of this country, mostly owing to contradictions between the declared values of Sweden’s image and nation brand and the real steps undertaken by the government to limit refugee immigration. The aim of this article is to discover potential correlation between the refugee crisis and changes within Sweden’s image and the strategy for promoting the country abroad, as well as Sweden’s methods and forms of international communication.

  • The Effects of Crises in the European Union as a Manifestation of the Militant Democracy Rule Implementation

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    E-mail: mail
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 615-621
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5850.pdf

    In the history of the European Union, there are three main crises: financial crisis, the so-called refugee crisis, and the recent coronavirus pandemic. Since the financial crisis, the process of modern democracies taking over the characteristics of non-democratic regimes has become noticeable, and subsequent crises are only exacerbating it. A useful theoretical category for explaining this phenomenon is the category of militant democracy, which was first used by Karl Loewenstein, who applied it to the Weimar Republic. The article aims to present in general how successive crises have contributed to accelerating the militant process by the EU Member States.

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