A comprehensive analysis of the provisions of the Treaty on European Union, which define the basic values, objectives, obligations of Member States and the procedure for ensuring effective judicial protection in the EU legal order. It has been established that the implementation of core values is a common task of the EU institutions and national state bodies. It is substantiated that the rule of law in the EU is ensured by effective judicial protection of rights in the areas covered by EU law. Effective judicial protection is provided by national courts together with the Court of Justice in the manner of implementing the mechanism provided for in Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU. It has been proven that the unity of purpose, common functions, equality of legal status and common standards of judicial organization and principles of administration of justice unite national courts and the Court of Justice into a single EU judicial system. It is proposed to define the concept of “EU judicial system”, namely, the EU judicial system is a set of EU judicial institutions, namely integration institutions (EU Court within the TEU) and national courts of the Member States (higher courts, constitutional bodies), principles of functioning provided by the EU legal order, which jointly perform the functions of judicial control and effective judicial protection in the European region, interact with each other and ensure the establishment of the rule of law in the EU. Judges of the EU judiciary have the same requirements for age, qualifications, independence and impartiality, which are the common organizational principles of the EU judiciary. All judges of the EU judiciary are obliged to adhere to the principles of proceedings set out in the Charter and the Convention. It is proved that the unity of purpose, common requirements for legal status, common standards and principles of justice established for judges of the Court of Justice and judges of national courts are signs of their belonging to a single EU judicial system.