Russia

  • Formy i efektywność rosyjskiego oddziaływania informacyjnego na Białorusi

    Author: Aliaksandr Kazak
    Institution: Belarusian Analytical Workroom
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 240-251
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202012
    PDF: cip/18/cip1812.pdf

    W artykule zaprezentowano formułę rosyjskiego oddziaływania propagandowego jakiemu państwo rosyjskie poddaje obywateli Białorusi. Wskazano cele i grupy docelowe tego oddziaływania, dokonano oceny ich efektywności oraz przedstawiono możliwe formy reakcji, mającej na celu przygotowanie Białorusinów do umiejętnego dostrzegania działań mających na celu dezinformację, manipulację i kształtowanie opinii publicznej zgodnie z rosyjskimi celami politycznymi.

  • Russian Roma children and their language development

    Author: Hristo Kyuchukov
    Institution: University of Silesia in Katowice
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1965-8908
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 123-136
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2021.01.06
    PDF: em/14/em1406.pdf

    The paper presents the results of research conducted among Russian Roma children. Two groups of children, 6-8 years and 8-10 years old, were tested with a Romani Language Assessment Test. The study was conducted in a Roma settlement of a small town not far from Moscow. The children were tested on different grammatical categories in Romani as their home language. The grammatical knowledge of the children about their home language is not considered to be used by the Russian teachers in classroom. The frame of Cummins (2015) “teaching through an intercultural lens” is taken as the starting point of the research. The research results showed that the Roma children at the age between 6-8 years know the most complex grammatical categories of Romani as their mother tongue, however children’s knowledge is not used by the teachers at school environment teaching Russian. There are no lessons in Romani as the mother tongue strengthening the children’s linguistic and cognitive abilities.

  • Eurasian Economic Union: Integration Organization or Tool for Russian Regional Hegemony? The Case of Participation of the Kyrgyz Republic in the EAEU since 2015

    Author: Jildiz Nicharapova
    Institution: American University of Central Asia
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8745-3533
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 122-146
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip202006
    PDF: siip/19/siip1906.pdf

    This paper uses the case of Kyrgyz Republic to analyze two competing views concerning the role of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). The realist view claims that the EAEU is a tool of Russian hegemonic power over its region of infl uence and interprets is as a primarily political rather than economic organization designed to serve Russia’s national interests at the expense of those of other members. The liberal institutionalist view, on the other hand, sees the EAEU as a new regional organization of economic integration that is benefi cial for all members. Analyzing the case of the participation of the Kyrgyz Republic in this union makes it clear that it is still too early to determine which perspective is correct as there is evidence in support of both.

  • Conciliatory and Conflictual Ethnopolitical Concepts in the Republics of the Russian Federation: Tatarstan and Chechnya

    Author: Andrzej Wierzbicki
    Institution: University of Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5493-164X
    Author: Sylwia Gorlicka
    Institution: University of Warsaw
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1205-030X
    Published online: 17 December 2021
    Final submission: 9 March 2021
    Printed issue: 2021
    Source: Show
    Page no: 17
    Pages: 131-147
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202157
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202157.pdf

    Russia is a state with a multi-ethnic federal structure inherited from the USSR. Implementing an ethnic policy that would unite and integrate its citizens is one of its most important goals. Among Russia’s federal subjects are also national republics pursuing their own ethno-political concepts, either conciliatory or conflictual. Tatarstan and Chechnya are examples of such republics. With the use of the comparative method, the article is an attempt at demonstrating many factors that have an impact on the shaping and implementing of the ethnic policy through such criteria as the status of the republics, the concept of the nation, and ethnocentrism, historical memory, the role of Islam and its politicization, and the language policy. The article also outlines their consequences and possible future scenarios.

  • Estonia as an Area of Russian Influence: Analysis and Synthesis of the Kremlin’s Methodology of Exerting Influence on Tallinn’s Political and Social Stability

    Author: Jacek Bil
    Institution: Military University of Technology
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9586-528X
    Published online: 30 December 2021
    Final submission: 19 November 2021
    Printed issue: 2022
    Source: Show
    Page no: 12
    Pages: 31-42
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202207
    PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202207_2.pdf

    Russia's hostile actions against the Estonian state structures take the form of soft power, which can be observed in such areas as the activities of the Russian-speaking minority, media coverage, or through the use of coercion when it comes to fuel sales. This article presents qualitative methods of measuring Russian influence on Estonia. An observable trend in international relations is replacing hard power with soft power, commonly used against states within the sphere of interest of certain geopolitical entities. It is more difficult to identify the latter and prove it results from an aggressor's deliberate actions. Information warfare, including disinformation and propaganda, is one of the means Russia uses to exert political influence. By accepting the offer of a political and military alliance with the Western world, the Baltic States have become a threat to the Kremlin's imperialist aspirations. Russia's direct military actions against Estonia and the other Baltic states would have provoked a strong reaction and could even have led to military confrontation. However, the Russian government wishes to avoid it and, for the time being, limits itself to soft power measures.

  • Key Systemic Changes in the Amendment to the Russian Constitution of March 14, 2020

    Author: Jarosław Matwiejuk
    Institution: University of Białystok
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6346-330X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 107-118
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.08
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6408.pdf

    The 1993 Russian constitution has been amended many times. The largest amendment was carried out on March 14, 2020. However, this is not a revision of the Constitution. The amendment includes changes strengthening the constitutional position of the President of the Russian Federation, correcting the federal system and the legal status of the bicameral Parliament and the Government of the Russian Federation. A new constitutional body was introduced, the State Council of the Russian Federation, and, for the first time, a provision on faith in God was introduced. Russia’s right not to recognize rulings and decisions of international bodies contrary to the Russian Constitution and the right to support compatriots living abroad in the exercise of their rights to protect their interests were enshrined. The amendment to the Russian Constitution is of fundamental importance for the policy pursued and the implementation of Russia’s national security strategy.

  • Społeczność żydowska w Czeczenii i Dagestanie. Rys historyczny

    Author: Kamil Pietrasik
    Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Studiów Międzynarodowych w Łodzi
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 211-224
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017111
    PDF: so/11/so1111.pdf

    The Jewish community in Chechnya and Dagestan. Historical view

    The author proposed a text in which he showed the most important events of Jewish people in Dagestan and Chechnya. Author showed statistics the number of Jews in the late years too and problems between Jewish and Chechens, other citizens in Dagestan.

  • Przywłaszczenie historii jako sposób walki informacyjno-psychologicznej Rosji przeciwko Ukrainie

    Author: Olga Wasiuta
    Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0481-1567
    Author: Sergiusz Wasiuta
    Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3402-963X
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 21-44
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223302
    PDF: npw/33/npw3302.pdf

    History usurpation as a method of the information and psychological fight of Russia against Ukraine

    In the article, the authors analyze the activities of Russian Federation, which falsifies, rewrites, substitutes concepts, deals with the heroization and deheroization of some outstanding historical figures and appropriates the historical past of the Ukrainian nation, arguing that Ukraine is an integral part of Russia’s history and its cultural space. The aim of the article is to analyze the usurpation and falsification of history as a means of war, including information war of Russia against Ukraine.

  • Migracja zarobkowa z Azji Centralnej do Rosji w dobie pandemii COVID-19

    Author: Andrzej Stopczyński
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9795-725X
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 90-108
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223305
    PDF: npw/33/npw3305.pdf

    Labor migration from Central Asia to Russia during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Like most countries in the world, the Russian Federation has also been struggling with the coronavirus pandemic that causes the COVID-19 disease since the beginning of 2020. The pandemic has harmed many areas of life in Russia, including social, demographic and economic issues. The changes also affected the labor market, which to a large extent is shaped by economic migrants from Central Asia. The situation of the economic migrants themselves has also changed significantly. Many of them lost their jobs, especially in the first half of 2020. Due to sanitary restrictions and the closure of borders, the number of Central Asian residents who decided to leave for Russia has significantly decreased. Experts emphasize that economic migrants make a significant contribution to the development of the Russian economy and the economies of Central Asian countries. This article aims to present how the Covid-19 pandemic influenced the shape of economic migration from Central Asia to Russia in the context of changing employment conditions and the socio-economic situation, both in Russia and the countries of the region.

  • Retrospekcja wzajemnych stosunków gospodarczych UE i Rosji Czynniki integrujące i dezintegrujące Unię

    Author: Ewelina Szydłowska
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8108-4688
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 55-71
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201803
    PDF: siip/17/siip1703.pdf

    A retrospective of bilateral economic relations between EU and Russia

    The European Union and Russia are different in economic terms. In opposite to traditional Russia, the EU is a new type of international community. Both sides are both partners and rivals aware of their addiction. The rivalries result from the collision defending Russia’s sphere of influence and the aspirations of the enlarging Union. The Union’s goal is to develop not only through deepening cooperation, but also by admitting new members to the community. The Russian Federation in the development of the EU sees a threat to its superpower position, and this is also the result of actions aimed at inducing disintegration in the EU, because the divided Europe is a weak Europe.

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