Russian Federation

  • Russlands Energiepolitik als Teil der russischen Außenpolitik

    This publication is part of the doctoral thesis, written in German with the title: Die Energiepolitik der Russischen Föderation im Zeitraum 2000–2009 und derem Auswirkungen für die energetische Sicherheit der EU (The Russian energy Policy 2000–2009 and its impact on the European energy security). The article presents how the Russian Federation is using its energy resources to achieve their current and future foreign policy goals. The author makes an attempt to explain a numer of fundamental issues relating on the one hand to the main motives of the Russian Federation in this field and on the other to its methods. He also analyses the Russian energy strategy and its negative impact on the energy security of the European Union. As important elements of this strategy the ”Gas-OPEC” as well as the direct and indirect investments of Gazprom in EU are mentioned. It is claimed that the implementation of pipeline projects by the Russian Federation (Nord-Stream and South-Stream) isn’t carried out at the bilateral relations level randomly – Nord-Stream (Russia-Germany), South-Stream (Russia-Italy) – but rather is seen as an opportunity to strengthen Russia’s relations with selected countries. This can be seen as an attempt to make the European Union weaker as a multilateral organization.

  • Szanghajska Organizacja Współpracy jako element zarządzania regionalnego Federacji Rosyjskiej

    Since the fall of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Russian Federation has been trying to regain its importance in the global arena. One way of restoration of influence in the world is to build a multipolar order, including the establishment of regional alliances. Shanghai Cooperation Organization is one of such attempts in the region of Central Asia, and even the entire Asian continent. Therefore, drawing attention to the role of Russian Federation in the development of this structure appears to be important, especially when considering the growing significance of Central Asia as a result of the construction of the New Silk Road. Russian authorities, however, do not limit their involvement to the single structure. At the same time they are working on development of other organizations, aimed at building their influence in the world. By such actions Russian Federation is trying to minimize the significance of the People’s Republic of China, European Union and United States of America, especially in the so-called near abroad.


    The LGBT rights are lately one of the aspects of a social and political discourse both in the Russian Federation and in Ukraine. In these countries of a common historical heritage there are some analogies in the perspective on human rights and their realization. It may be also noted that the LGBT rights have become an instrument of politics. In the following article the authors present a comparative analysis of the way in which the LGBT rights are respected in the Russian Federation and in Ukraine. They will depict the similarities and differences between these two countries which result from historical conditions, and will provide an analysis of the current perception of non-heterosexual people in both countries.

  • Strategia energetyczna Federacji Rosyjskiej wobec państw Grupy Wyszehradzkiej

    Federacja Rosyjska to obecnie największy eksporter gazu ziemnego oraz ropy naftowej na europejski rynek paliw. W skład europejskiego rynku paliw wchodzą państwa zrzeszone w V4. Różnią się potencjałem energetycznym, przyjętą strategią polityki zagranicznej, w tym oceną roli i znaczenia jakie UE powinna odgrywać w ramach prowadzonej przez siebie polityki energetycznej. Elementami wspólnymi w zakresie prowadzonej przez kraje V4 polityki energetycznej pozostają uzależnienie od Federacji Rosyjskiej w zakresie importu ropy naftowej i gazu ziemnego oraz związane z tym obawy dotyczące bezpieczeństwa energetycznego. Wszystko to ma miejsce w obliczu realizowanej przez władze rosyjskiej strategii budowy „mocarstwa energetycznego”, które wykorzystując surowce energetyczne jako źródło kreacji relacji w polityce zagranicznej, wewnętrznej będzie zdolne wpływać na bieg wydarzeń na Starym Kontynencie. Publikacja Strategia energetyczna Federacji Rosyjskiej wobec państw Grupy Wyszehradzkiej ma na celu przybliżenie relacji pomiędzy Federacją Rosyjską a państwami Grupy V4 w zakresie handlu, przesyłu surowców energetycznych jak również przejmowania przez Federację Rosyjską infrastruktury poszczególnych sektorów energetycznych krajów Europy Środkowowschodniej.

  • Russian Active Measures in Psychological Warfare

    The aim of the article is to analyse Russian active measures in the context of psychological warfare. Active measures are defined as the actions of political warfare conducted by Russian secret service. In case of Russian Federation they are the core of psychological operations that are tools of realising international and domestic policy priorities. Active measures include disinformation campaigns and supporting insurgency in opponent states. Regarding the context of psychological operations active measures are designed to model the mental sphere of opponent society. Active measures are aimed at weakening the unity of the European Union as well as common trust in NATO. Creating favourable atmosphere for Russian activity is the main goal of implementing active measures. Therefore active measures are considered as a great part of Russian interpretation of psychological warfare. Although active measures can support the military activity they are designed to influence the mental sphere of opponent society and are used to create opinions and interpretations that match Russian interests. Those measures are difficult to identify and therefore are threats that are not easy to counteract.

  • Mundial Putina – kilka słów o Mistrzostwach Świata w Piłce Nożnej 2018

    Putin’s World Cup – a few words about the 2018 World Cup

    This article applies to the Football World Cup, which took place in June 2018. The goal of the Mundial was not only to provide fantastic emotions to fans from around the world, but also – from the point of view of the Russian Federation - it was a tool for building the image of a modern state that is open to tourists and able to welcome them with great hospitality. In this respect, this event can definitely be considered an organizational success. On the other hand, the political actions of the Russian authorities, such as the introduction of a number of negatives commented on by citizens or unmoved matters related to the defense of human rights, have put a shadow over these positive opinions.

  • Ramy prawne funkcjonowania społeczności muzułmańskiej w Federacji Rosyjskiej

    The legal framework for the functioning of Muslim community in the Russian Federation

    At present, the Muslim community in the Russian Federation grows in importance and strength. The religious freedom, which came as a result of the democratic transformation that took place in the Russian Federation in the late 1980s and early 1990s opened the opportunity for its Muslim residents to develop their own culture, educational system and administrative structure. The freedom of religion was one of the most important elements of perestroika and one of the directions of Russia’s development following the transformation. Here, the freedom of religion can be considered as both an element of liberalization of the Soviet regime, and, after the break-up of the USSR, as a step towards democratization. The article aims to present the most important legal acts and documents that constitute the legal basis for the functioning of Muslims in the contemporary Russian Federation.

  • The Russian Federation’s neo-imperial expansionist strategy for the Post-Soviet region discussed using the example of the Russo-Georgian conflict of 2008

    The subject of this article is the analysis of the conflict between the Russian Federation and Georgia in 2008. The conflict has opened a new stage in Russia’s strategic drive to make decisions and implement them in areas recognized as important for the security of the country, even if they are outside its borders. The Georgian case clearly indicated that Russia wants to maintain its dominant position in the entire post-Soviet area. The region of the Caucasus remains an extremely important area for Russia, where it wants to maintain strategic control. The author proves in his article that the main determinants influencing the policy of the Russian Federation in the Caucasus region are: maintaining the greatest possible impact on the internal situation of the countries of the region, the maximum hindering possible integration with the Euro-Atlantic structures, the largest economic dependence on Russia, taking control over key sectors of the economy, maintaining military presence, isolation of the North Caucasus from Georgia, maintaining a monopoly on energy supplies, interest in Azeri mineral resources, striving to take over control of natural gas transport.
    The Russian-Georgian conflict of 2008 was one of the elements of Russia’s demonstration of the consequences of maintaining its dominant position in the post-Soviet area. The sphere of influence extends not only to Eastern Europe but also to the socalled Putin’s doctrine extends, in fact, to the entire area of the former USSR.

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